Accordingly, the onset of Boko Haram violence is to be blamed onto either the central government or the police as they have failed to exert enough control over their territory. Violence is thus the result of the emasculation of the state . The solution, then, is to bring order back by reinforcing local police control and containing the spread of violence. This was the most popular discourse within Nigeria in 2013 when Goodluck Jonathan launched ‘Operation Zaman Lafiyaas’ (later turned into ‘Operation Lafiya Dole’) against Boko Haram as it provided a justification to police violence and unauthorised killings in the North-East . Although it will be discussed in more length in Chapter Five, one of the many issues with this narrative is that it takes individual agency away from the police forces by depicting them as rule-driven, as the guardians of order always acting on behalf of the central
The Weimar Republic was formed during November of 1918 in result of the removal and exile of Wilhelm II following the first world war. This resulted in a gap in the German government and there was no apparent ruler to fill this gap. Therefore, the Germans had their first attempt to create a parliamentary democracy, this was in fact the Weimar Republic. It was inevitable that the Weimar Republic would face oppositions from the left and right wings, however it had slowly begun to overthrow these oppositions and deal with them since there had been social and economic improvements within the republic that had majorly helped them in the long run, up until the collapse of the Weimar Republic in 1933. One of the biggest issues that the new government had to face was the exaggerated terms of the Treaty of Versailles.
During apartheid, the government was pressured by the international community which wanted apartheid to end. Many international campaigns were enforced on the south African economy which stressed the great extent the international community put on the south African apartheid government to modify the system. To understand everything better we need to first understand what apartheid was and how it originated. Apartheid basically was a system of established racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa and in 1912 black urban and traditional leaders founded the South African native national congress who believed in the opposition of the policies made by the first union of South Africa government which led to an increase in internal resistance.
Originally, the Mexican constitution established a very loose federation, where states could act as they saw fit in order to dilute power. The federal government could not intervene without request and states had no representation in the federal legislature. Congress had to grant the President emergency powers, and beyond those, he had very weak authority but could also be re-elected ad infinitum. However, due to massive divides between liberals and conservatives, civil war broke out, which led to the precedent and necessity of an authoritarian and extremely powerful executive to make wartime decisions for the survival of the liberal government. Thus, Juárez expanded the emergency powers and federal intervention authority, obtaining permission from Congress frequently.
Public administration majorly deals withthe management of different government sectors and private sectors while politics deals with formulation of a country’s policies. Public Administration and politics have been two main fields that have dominated the country’s major professions although it had been almost in futile to understand and differentiate the two. The assassination of president James Garfiled gave rise to Pendleton Act in 1883. The Act was drafted ad speered headed by George Hunt Pendleton of Ohio and passed by the Congress.The Act determined the start of appointment on the basis of merit.
the long-term causes went much deeper than the issue arised about the Enfield rifle. There was underlying political grievances from the indians, the displacement of a large number of ruler and chiefs was led by the British policy of territorial annexations. Under the governor-generalship of Lord Dalhousie, a number of independent kingdom annexation to British Empire was successful. Under his policy 'Doctrine of Lapse' both the princes and landowners had been subjected to the heavy hand of government and he wished to removed as many feudal states as he could and leaving only a few of the larger ones nominally independent yet actually would be the control of the central government.this planned was designated to lead to better government and
Strain Theory The founding fathers believed that democracy depends upon economic freedom (Schramm, 2006). Indeed, the founding fathers wrote the U.S. Constitution so that a capitalistic economic system would persist to ensure political freedom. As a result, achieving financial success is fundamental to American society. According to the Robert Merton’s strain theory, when people in power pass laws that do not represent the common interests of the local residents, and which inhibit them from legitimately achieving their financial goals, the local residents start to experience stress and strain (Vold et al., 2002). The strain theory indicates that the social structure fails to provide the legitimate means to achieve what the local culture values (i.e., financial success) and that negative feelings (e.g., stress, frustration, anxiety, depression, and anger) are created because the poor perceive that their financial opportunities are being oppressed by the government (Vold et al., 2002).
UN Secretary General Kofi Annan (‘97-‘06) states No nation is born a democracy.” By this he means, that nations need to build on their idea of what democracy should include and aspire to maintain that standard. It needs sufficient time, effort and maintenance to result in success and that too, this success will always be relative. Moreover the government needs to enter into a ‘social contract’ of kind wherein the people give it the legitimacy it needs to govern
Lack of public space identification, Ethnic politics in Uganda is related to the lack of a link that seals a common identity and destiny. As I have already mentioned most of them came to power with the help of the coups and the military (MUGAJU, Justus, & J. OLOKA-ONYANGO 2000), in order to survive, many politicians have used the same tricks in the book; they have pitched ethnic groups against each other. Given the determination of the NRM to monopolize power indefinitely, the situation opens the door for methods that lack any democratic pretense (Mwakikagile 2012). The tragedy for the country is that it has emerged out ethnically organized, militaristic and authoritarian which relies on ethnic chauvinism and resists democratization of the state power, because the system of ethnic hegemony survives on state resources. In the same way as slave trade and colonization were facilitated by African collaborators, they have managed to use the system of hegemonic exchange which has been achieved through tribal alliances and
Mali got its reputation of the african exception and “as a model of democracy after free and fair elections in 1991 and 2002 which resulted in peaceful transitions to newly elected presidents.” (Wing) However, the democratisation process made worst an already existing phenomenon of corruption and governance at all levels of the government. Transparency International ranks Mali 118th in 2007. When freedom of expression and accountability of public figures got better, the control of corruption worsen, in particular when it comes to the public sector and judiciary branch of the government. During ATT’s presidency, the government started applying a series of measures to diminish financial and administrative delinquency, especially a reform of public finances and a strengthening of internal and external structures of control. (UNDP ) The lack of decentralisation in Mali is tightly linked to the weak service providing from government institutions.