Inspection and Testing is an important part of failure analysis of material. Suppose you are Inspection Engineer, how will you proceed for the Failure analysis of certain material/case study? Copied case (more than 20% Plagiarism) = Zero mark Documentation = 3 marks Logical Sequence = 3 marks Your own contribution/Discussion = 4 marks Inspection and testing is indeed an important part of failure analysis of materials, especially for an inspection engineer. Now in order to proceed successfully, the engineer must follow some procedure and a proper sequence with careful and keen behavior. If I am an inspection engineer, then I would follow following steps for the failure analysis of the material: First of all, the most important thing is to a background study of the object or material under inspection.
Communication best practices in crisis are applicable in a wide arrangement of setting, whether it is ‘‘natural disasters like earthquakes, intentional events like terrorist and in other range of industrial accidents etc. This is the reason I am not agree with the statement that is The Best crisis practices are NOT useful for other uncertain events outside the organizations like catastrophe or terrorist attack. Thus, practices outline the options that one might consider and understand when individuals or organization are facing the crisis situation and require help to manage it so organizations take it as learning lessons for a particular setting of practice. Question No 2 1) In your opinion what are the possible good practices in crisis communication other than mentioned in this article by Matthew W. Seeger? (10 marks) Answer: In my opinion Crisis communication practices other then described by the author in the given article is that is follows the specific processes to enhance effectiveness of the communication.
The current design codes specify guidelines which provide simple seismic design procedures, through empirical factors and simple equations. However the behaviour of the structure is complex and depends on various factors and hence the sufficiency of these designs based on simple equations cannot be predicted. In addition to gravity loads, a structure has to be designed for anticipated lateral loads. The lateral loads subjected to a structure can be due to wind or earthquake. A structural engineer needs to develop an effective lateral load resisting system, which would prevent collapse and damage to life and property.
In particular, the seismic rehabilitation of older concrete structures in high seismicity areas is a matter of growing concern, since structures vulnerable to damage must be identified and an acceptable level of safety must be determined. To make such assessment, simplified linear-elastic methods are not adequate. Thus, the structural engineering community has developed a new generation of design and seismic procedure that incorporates performance based design of structures and is moving away from simplified linear elastic methods and towards a more non linear technique. Recent interests in the development of performance based codes for the design or rehabilitation of buildings in seismic active areas show that an inelastic procedure commonly referred to as the pushover analysis is a viable method to assess damage vulnerability of buildings. Basically, a pushover analysis is a series of incremental static analysis carried out to develop a capacity curve for the building with increasing lateral load or displacement.
Much more can be achieved with concerted effort from the government on occupational safety and health. Improvement in occupational safety and health requires actions from all parties namely workers, employers and the government. Accidents at the workplace should be prevented with the cooperation from the workers on top of regular enforcement from the government. Occupational accidents are preventable and safety measures could help to prevent the severity of occupational injuries. Occupational fatalities and permanent disabilities were more likely to be severe compared to non-permanent disabilities.
Failure in any of these may lead to a mishap in an industry. Kletz (2001) approached industrial accidents in an electromagnetic spectrum analyzing the immediate technical cause of the accident and underlying superficial cause. The analysis is important to identify the root cause, missed opportunity and the preventive counteractive measures to be considered in the future. However, nature of the investigation performed analyzing all the possible factors is also a key distinguishing factor in identification of true cause and recommendation towards effective countermeasures. This report relates ethical aspects of engineers towards minimizing unfortunate events happening in the industry.
It is always difficult for the civil engineers in trying to find a balance between innovation and sustainable development. Civil engineers need to acknowledge their professional obligations, extend their knowledge base, and participate in all levels of policy decisions. This requires an inter-disciplinary approach. There should be participation along with ecologists, sociologists, economists and professionals from other disciplines in applying technology to issues and challenges that require environmentally sustainable strategies. Implementation of sustainability into civil engineering projects requires the learning and application of new skills.
Each element observes its own boundaries and involves its own set of activities and processes. These elements are dependent on each other in terms of providing support and can be further broken down into layers of sub-components. One of pluses of this model is that it avails us a balance between preparedness and flexibility in order to respond fluidly to the specific needs of disasters. Since this model provides the link between actions and events in disasters such links can be tight or loose. For example, it strongly links hazard and risk management activities but fails to provide a tight linkage between the four stages of disaster management which are important elements in a disaster management
Because of high rise buildings and other manmade structures urban and industrial areas are considered to be more susceptible to disasters. These disasters can be categorized into natural and human induced disasters. Natural disasters include floods, storms, cyclones, bush fire, earthquakes etc whereas human induced disasters include transportation accidents, industrial accidents, major fires etc. During these emergency situations, and especially in urban disaster, in order to prevent loss of life and property, various essential services (like policeman, fire fighters and medical assistance etc) are deployed. They need to cooperate to save lives, protect structural infrastructure, and evacuate victims to safety.
Disaster preparedness does not only establish arrangements beforehand to make suitable responses to such events and situations, but it also plans for strategies to counteract uncontrollable threats to life and property. 2. The nation, people and government included, needs to be equipped with the essential means in order to help them prepare for disasters, as simply being aware is not enough. B. Despite the multiple criticisms thrown at the national government, it still aims for the amplitude of disaster risk management.