The term feminism is considered a controversial issue once it may be impossible to give it an accurate definition . This definition will be better or further defined as claimed by its historical origins and development . The term feminism originated from the French word “ feminisme” made up by the utopian socialist Charles Fourier . In 1890s , the term was first used in English in association with the movement for equal political and legal rights for women . The term feminism was pinned down through three waves of feminist thought and activity : a.
Feminism in its broad sense is a movement that aims at establishing and achieving equal political, economic, cultural and social rights for women. It believes that both men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. Feminists call for the right of women to receive education, to have equal opportunities in work as well as equal pay. Additionally, they believe that women should be self- determined and have the right to vote. Feminism actually emerged as a reaction against the unjust treatment and subjugation of women; it aims at the emancipation of women from all forms of oppression.
While efforts toward women’s civil rights had been made in previous centuries, large scale movements known as feminism began to truly gain ground in the 19th century. The beginnings of feminism, commonly defined as work toward the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes, are often attributed to Mary Wollstonecraft in her book The Vindication of the Rights of Women, published in 1792. The ideas spread by Wollstonecraft inspired many more prominent figures and works to emerge throughout the 1800s. The feminist movement was especially prevalent in Great Britain, where women such as Josephine Butler and writings like A Room of One’s Own and The Subjection of Women worked and spread awareness. While women’s political rights in 19th century Great Britain were improving, the social attitudes worked in the opposite way to confine women even more to household and domestic roles.
Feminisim demands towards towards eliminating the inequalites and social injustices towards a gender equal society. As Byerly & Ross (2006) state, the words feminist and feminism refere to women’s liberation movements since 1970s that have been aimed at securing women’s right to participate in their societies, including the ability to enter into publi deliberation, institution building, and other processes associated with citizenship. Feminism in India
Dalit women’s access to citizenship rights, normally considered as accruing to every Indian citizen, has thus been examined more closely in regard to both their economic and social conditions as well as the various ways in which they are subjugated in public and private spheres. Wandana Sonalkar’s (2004) in her another work “Towards a feminism of caste: Gender and Caste”. She explore the Gender and Caste, in a sense, addresses this problem to some extent by bringing together a collection of historical and contemporary analyses, reports, manifestos and testimonies that bear on the theme and tries to align academic inquiry with contemporary political developments. This anthology is an important addition to Kali for Women’s series Issues in Contemporary Feminism, particularly because it seeks to exorcise the ghost of ‘monolithic identity’ which the Indian feminist
Feminism is a discourse that involves various movements, theories and philosophies which are concerned with the issue of gender difference; it also advocates equality for women and campaigns for women’s rights and interests. Feminist theory is associated with the analysis and explanation of women’s subordinate social situation. It seeks to analyze the condition which shapes women’s lives and to explore cultural perception of what it means to be a woman. In the early twentieth century there were some important feminist thinkers: Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935), Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86) and Betty Friedan (1921-2006). Like them Rokeya also appeared as a strong voice of feminism.
Liberal Feminism developed as a subculture of Liberalism that was particularly prominent in the late 1800s and early 1900s when women were campaigning for the right to vote. It is known for being focused on legal equality and this can be traced back to the early influential texts of Liberal Feminism. Mary Wollstonecraft’s ‘A vindication of the rights of women’, encouraged women to make their own decisions, rather than accept the decisions previously made for them. This implies that women should not accept the decisions made in parliament on behalf of them and have a say in who gets to make those decisions themselves. Which of course encourages women’s suffrage.
With internet, feminism and advertisement has grown manifold hand in hand, making its mark on the equality of gender in the society. The word 'feminism ' as described in the dictionary first described is the doctrine advocating social, political, academic and all other rights of women equal to those of men. It is an organized movement for the attainment of such rights of women. It also states a 'feminine ' character. The word first originated in France and Netherlands in 1872 as 'les feministes ', Great Britain in the 1890s and the United States in 1904.
LALIT KUMAR PROFESSOR ANJANA SHARMA M.A ENGLISH 1st SEM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH UNIVERSITY OF DELHI Women’s Movement: A world within Indian Nationalist Movement To locate the position of Indian women in the Indian National movement, it can be said that they acted as agents of struggle against the Colonial rule alongside with men, thereby creating a space for themselves in the nationalist political frame. This participation, struggle on behalf of the Indian women in the Indian national movement, which was fought for freedom and civil liberties, was an act towards seeking such liberties and freedom. It is this historical past which shaped women’s movement
Apart from the goals initiated in the Constitution, legislations like Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956, Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971, the Family Courts Act, 1981, Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986, Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987, National Commission for Women Act, 1990, Sexual Harassment of Women at the Work Place Prevention Bill, 2000, Protection from Domestic Violence Bill 2002, Foreign Marriage Act, 1969, have been eanacted to recognize the status of women in India, give them protection, empower them, eliminate gender disability manifested in various forms in various fields of activities, change social and economic structure, which marginalizes them as against men. Aim is to create environment in which they enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms equal with men in all spheres political, economic, social, cultural and civil equal access to participation and decision making in social, political and economic life of the Nation, the health care, equality in education at all levels, career and vocational guidence, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public office; provide for legal system and eliminate all forms of discrimination against women; prevention of all forms of violence against women, sensitize judicial system making it more responsive to women’s aspirations, creating environmental where women can fight for their rights fearlessly. Apart from other fields, position of women in the legal profession and Judiciary is no good. It is no good. It is said that women