During the hundred and fifty odd years that followed, we slowly transitioned from the concept of ‘women upliftment ' to ‘women empowerment '. If women upliftment involved drawing women out of their homes, educating them and providing them with basic opportunities in life (that ironically, we tend to take for granted in today 's world), women empowerment encompasses a much broader perspective. It is more about egalitarianism, life skills and in Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen 's words, the freedom of choice. The twentieth century saw rapid development in the field of technology. With the advent of the television, computer and the internet, the field of advertising took on a whole new meaning.
This essay looks at the beginnings of feminism and the women who brought it through each of its successive stages. First as an idea, then as social action and campaigning, and finally as a movement that has touched the lives of women and men around the world. It will endeavor to examine its roots and calculate the reason that feminism has garnered such a strong argument both for and against itself and why it is more important than ever that society learns to accept feminism not just as a women’s rights movement but as an ongoing endeavor for human rights and equality between the sexes. The First Wave The first wave of feminism began in the nineteenth century and carried on till the early twentieth century. The focus of the first wave was to gain political power with the main objective of obtaining the right to vote.
There were many women reformers who worked for the betterment and upliftment of their other female counterparts. Many reformers like Ishwarchandra vidyasagar, Jyotiba phule with his wife Savitribai phule undertook various measures to eradicate social stigmas from the society. Sir Sayyed ahemd khan established the Aligarh muslim university for the spread of education among the Muslims. He also abolished the purdah system among muslim women. In the modern India, women were given liberties and rights such as freedom of expression and equality as well as right to get education.
Modern feminist political activists commonly campaign for a woman’s right to bodily integrity and autonomy on matters such as reproductive rights including the right to abortion, access to contraception and quality prenatal care, for protection from domestic violence, against sexual harassment and rape, for workplace rights including maternity leave and equal pay, and against other forms of discrimination. These concerns do not always match with those of the classical feminists because the world has got many changes with the pace of time and so the demands of humankind in general and those of women in particular have been different and new in congruity with the time and place. Women are forced to believe in and cope up with their limitations fabricated by the society controlled by men. Simone de Beauvoir invokes in the famous first sentence in part two of The Second Sex (1949), “One was not born a woman; rather, one becomes a woman” (qtd. in Barry 130).
According to Giddens (1999), the world has been biased towards men since the early ages. However, globalization has handed the mic over to women, who are now in active pursuit of greater equality. This achievement, spurred on by globalization, has allowed women to become active participants in this modern era of globalization. For example, women being given the right to participate in global events and take a lead role after being suppressed by sexist governments for many years. Here in Qatar I can see how Giddens’ view is applicable as women were given leadership roles in education.
(p.91) Although the nation was previously known for the mistreatment of women, Thailand is an increasingly progressive nation when it comes to gender roles. In 1997, there was a new constitution that was written that granted equality for both men and women. (Romanow, p.44) Women have jobs in politics, medicine, science, and engineering. Depending on
This is sadly a very far cry from the truth but then anything in Pakistan which does not suit the popular and corrupt mindset is usually deemed an agenda of some foreign white hall of power which forever hangs over us in our imaginations. This new modern liberating mindset as it is painted has been around ever since the days of Fatima Jinnah who fought for women’s rights throughout her life. Rana liaqut Ali Khan who founded the “United front for women’s rights” was another pioneer in activism in those days. In fact the early days of the feminism were met with great success as women not only achieved the right to vote but made it part of the constitution to have representation reserved for them in the parliament from 1956 to 1973. After this came Bhutto era, and this really opened up all government services to women including the district management group and the foreign service (in the civil service), which had been denied to them earlier.
Islamization in Malaysia Islamization refers to the process by which what are perceived by Islamic laws, values and practices are given greater significance in state, society and culture . (Liow, 2009, pp43) In 1972, Prime Minister Abdul Razak Hussein spoke about the “religious revolution to check declining morals” (Liow, 2009, pp46) which led to the gradual occurrence of Islamization. Islamic scholars and influential muftis on the National Fatwa Council helped this process by justifying Islamization through disseminating their views in the social and cultural arena through education and media (Hoffstaedter, 2013, pp 272). The process of Islamization through various means by various organizations have influenced apostasy in many ways. One of which is the political aspect of Islamization.
MEDIA AND SOCIAL ISSUES: FEMINISM INTRODUCTION TO FEMINISM WHAT IS FEMINISM? Feminism is a widely known movement that aims to obtain equal rights for women. People who support this movement are known as ‘feminists’. These feminists campaign to fight for countless issues such as equal pay for their work, fair employment opportunities, the right to education, and so on. Oakley (1981) said that, “Ultimately any feminism is about putting women first; it is about judging women’s interests (however defined) to be important and to be insufficiently represented and accommodated within mainstream politics/academia.” Although the definition stated above implies putting men second, Mayes (1986) claims that only by ‘putting women first’ may we redress
Women empowerment is empowering women in this present society, giving them an equivalent right and encouraging them to believe that they are equivalent to men. Government making different types of reservation for women, in the name of empowering women which creates a complete separate line for women or the seats which are specially reserved for women in buses, trains or metros is this really what empowerment is all about if it is not then what exactly is women empowerment?. Well for every girl women empowerment would mean something different, something which she needs more. According to me, women empowerment is treating me equal to men. I do agree with the videos which are spiraling viral over the internet as Vogue one of the best women’s magazine has taken up the step to make people understand what is women empowerment through different videos.