Introduction According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2016), one of the definitions of Language is that it is “The system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other”. Therefore, language is used to express the thoughts and feelings, and vocabulary is necessary to express it. But learning the definitions of words is fundamental. Many teachers believe that an effective instructional technique is to define words before reading a text because it supports vocabulary growth and helps them comprehend what they read; however, research indicates otherwise. Teaching English vocabulary may be challenging, and it takes a challenging teacher to achieve it.
co-founder of the Dyslexia Training Institute, claims: “It cannot be overstated that students with dyslexia are capable of learning to read and write when given the appropriate intervention. This intervention should be structured and multisensory. It should be an explicit instruction of the underlying structure of English, and it should be informed by linguistics. For many of these students, accommodations in the classroom can be the difference between academic success and academic failure and frustration”. According to the pioneer neuro- psychiatrist Samuel Orton, instruction should also be multisensory involving movement, listening, speaking, touching and so on, but taking into account how the learners respond according to their learning preferences.
Encountering the metalanguage of grammar guides the language instructors to: understand sentence structure, understand learning-resources like quizzes, E-books, tools, tests, understand learners needs and grammar deficiencies, understand own insufficiency. The metalanguage of grammar is inevitable for trainers of any foreign language for creating a symbiotic relationship between teacher and learner. Without acknowledging the importance of the metalanguage of grammar educators might drift to a teacher-centered, audio-lingualism approach, and generate an empathy and monotony in their grammar
The limitation of this study is tactics of effective questioning used by senior and junior spoken one teachers of English Department of Petra Christian University. The tactics are limited on the tactics of effective questioning written by Wragg and Brown (2001). 1.6 Definition of Key Terms In this study, there are 2 key terms that the writer uses; and the definition of each key term is explained below. - Question: “Everyday questions and questioning within the classroom, whether that classroom is organises in groups, for individual learning, orfor whole class activities” (Wragg & Brown,2001,p.1). - Effective questioning tactics: “Tactic is the strategy of questioning teacher can used to achieve effective questioning such as structuring, pitching and putting clearly, directing and distributing, pausing and pacing, prompting and probing, listening to replies and responding, sequencing” (Wragg & Brown,200,p.28).
Interlanguage theory Before going to the other concerns, first we will have a look at the Interlanguage Theory as it is very important in the second language with relation to SLA. The term interlanguage was used by Selinker (1972) when he described the rules of structure at the Intermediate grammar level given for the learners of second language to achieve their target language. In spite of the inadequacy of the nature of this grammar, Selinker says that it makes a unity of the whole as this grammar is driven through many psychological mechanisms and it is not developed in the natural way. Adjemian presented Selinker's philosophy with some modification that the second language learner can use the rules of L1 in the L2 if the learner gets such
The Acquisition-Learning distinction is crucial because it gives an argument opposing the effortful labor of learning a new language in adults. Krashen (1988) explained that there are two independent ways in which a second language performance can be regarded. The first is the acquired system and is the product of a mind process, a subconscious one that is very similar to the one that happens with children when acquiring their native/mother tongue. This process requires continuous interaction with the target language. On the other hand, Krashen (1988) also explained that the learned system is the result of a very formal way of learning a language that involves the conscious process of being knowledgeable about a language.
The most critical factor is the arrangement of stimuli and consequences within the environment Ertmer & Newby (2013) • How Constructivism impacts learning Curriculum- Constructivism calls for the elimination of a standardized curriculum. Instead, it promotes using curricula customized to the students’ prior knowledge. Also, it emphasizes hands-on problem solving. Instruction–Under the theory of constructivism, educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students. Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information.
Fear of Public Speaking in Students Abstract This paper addresses the research into students’ attitudes to speaking in public on different themes and students observations of experienced gains and lacks. Each student stumble upon a variety of complexities in making presentations and these difficulties need to be identified and dealt with. Evaluation of public speaking allows determining strengths and weaknesses and work out the methodology of teaching effective presentations. The outcome of research is drawing general outline of good practices in helping students to overcome this problem. 1.0 Introduction Speaking in public always aims at communication and presupposes a different level of formality depending on the settings and the audience.
I was particularly struck by the distinction between different modes of delivering curriculum and in particular the contrast between Product and Process methods, in curriculum development. At this point it might be useful to analyse the distinction between these two processes. Neary identifies the Product Model as one that “emphasises plans and intentions” whereas in the Process Model, the emphasis is on the “activities and effects” (O’Neill 2015, p27). In essence therefore the Product Model can be regarded as a more traditional and historically tested method of developing curriculum. The work of John Franklin Bobbitt and Ralph Tyler very much advocate Product curricular designs, maintaining that these designs are centred on the creation of a disciplined and “structured learning environment for students” (O’Neill 2015, p).
As a teacher, I am taking this opportunity to evaluate and make sense of what the articles are proposing - relating it to the real situations. When it is said that students’ attitude is one of the major factors that determine their success in language learning, I believe that it is true. There have been numerous researches that have been conducted on investigating the role of attitude in second language acquisition, spurred by the knowledge that all these negative attitudes can be changed. Factors like better teaching strategies, classroom and social environment can actually help in reducing negative attitude. Based on the understanding, there are two reasons why we have the attitudes of learning second language – all of these are interrelated.