Monetary policy is enacted by a central bank that controls money supply that is circulating in the economy. This money supply influences inflation and interest rates that determine consumption level, employment rate and cost of debt. Expansionary monetary policy involves in buying treasury notes and declining interest rates on loans of central banks. These actions help in making the money supply to increase and making interest rates lower. This policy also makes consumption to be more attractive corresponding to savings.
In order to allow a stable expansion of the economy, the Fed primarily manages the growth of bank reserves and money supply through three main tools. To implement the task of controlling the money supply, the Fed may implement a change in reserve requirements, a change in discount rate or make open-market operations.(Cloutier, n.d.) The cash reserve ratio is the percentage of reserves a commercial bank is required to hold against deposits. If regulators decide to lower the cash reserve ratio, the commercial banks will be able to lend more thus increasing the supply of money or the amount of money in the economy.
The dynamic Three Equation Macro Model designed by Charles I. Jones allows us to trace the behavior of the Fed’s monetary policy and other economic variables over time when the economy is exposed to different kinds of shocks. The model incorporates IS curve along with the Phillips curve and the Taylor Rule, assuming the adaptive inflation
The value of a currency is the worth of it as compared to or with other currencies. The value of a currency against other currencies is the exchanged rate of that currency. Exchange rate management or control in countries differs. While some practice fixed exchange rate regime, others also allow the forces of demand and supply to determine the value (price) of the currencies. Currency fluctuations normally happen in countries where they practice the free exchange rate system.
It is just an instrument of commerce that enables people to exchange one good for another and produce more wealth. This means that money, paper or specie, just facilitates transactions because humans have formed a consensus over its ability to be used to buy or sell commodities. Hume follows this claim by introducing a theory which today is one of the foundations for macroeconomics: the quantity theory of money. He writes that “the prices of commodities are always proportioned to the plenty of money…” (Hume, II.III.1).
Accrual accounting and Cash flow accounting are critical factors which contribute to judgments and decision-makings that lead to a successful business. It is debatable whether accrual accounting is preferred to cash flow accounting, while there are some financial economists are in favor of using cash flow basic to report. This chapter will first give a foundation of accrual and cash flow accounting, then discuss the advantages as well as drawbacks of both methods and give the conclusion which type of accounting is suitable to record. Accrual accounting is an accounting that revenues are recognized when sales have been made and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, even the cash receipt from the revenue or the cash payment related to
People use it to measure how much the company actually earn out of sales. It is used for comparing similar companies. The company with higher profit margin means it has a better cost-control. This ratio reminds company of suitable budgeting on cost and sale(Kong, 2007). Promotion
In Marx’s writings he explains the difference of money as money and money as capitol. Another thing Marx describes in his writings is labor being an essential part of capitol. One thing labor leads to is valorization which is the process through which one starts with money and ends up with more money. This process of valorization leads to surplus
Macroeconomic policy is a framework of a set of rules and regulations that the government implements to control the nation’s economy, unemployment rate, inflation, recessions, money supply, growth rate, interest rate, and many more. The two main monitoring macroeconomic policies are: • Fiscal policy • Monetary policy What is fiscal policy?
The Baumol model of cash management is beneficial in this regard. Use of Baumol Model The Baumol model enables companies to find out their desirable level of cash balance under certainty. And this theory relies on the tradeoff between the liquidity provided by holding money (the ability to carry out transactions) and the interest foregone by holding one’s assets in the form of non-interest bearing cash. The main variables of the demand for cash are then the nominal interest rate, the level of actual income which resembles to the amount of desired transaction and to a fixed cost of transferring one’s wealth between liquid money and interest bearing assets.
The Federal Reserve controls over the federal fund rates give it the ability to influence the general level of short-term market interest rates. The Fed has three main tools at its disposal to influence monetary policy which are the open-market operations, discount rate, and reserve requirements. b. Monetary policy is the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. The concept of Monetary Policy simply stated is that the cost of credit is reduced, more people and firms will borrow money and the economy will heat up. c. The controls that Federal Reserve used worked because the use of the three main tools the Fed uses is the most important that can manipulate monetary policy.
How does the federal government regulate the economy for the benefit of the public? Discuss specific policies and programs, including their effects. The federal government has many programs and abilities to regulate the United States economy. On of which is the fiscal policy which allows government to raise and spend money.
The central bank of the United States is the Federal Reserve, known as the Fed. It is the Fed’s responsibility to take actions, known as monetary policies, that will influence interest rates and the money supply within the economy to obtain the goals of price stability, financial market stability, maximizing employment, and stabilize economic growth. The goal of maintaining price stability by keeping inflation low and stable helps preserve the value of money. Sustaining the financial market promotes efficient flow of funds from savers to borrowers. By cultivating conditions to keep employment high, the fed can promote maximum production to spur economic growth and raise the standard of living for Americans.
Governments often disagree on the adjustment of local, state, and national economic policies. Measures implemented by these governments in relation to the collection of revenue and public expenditure are referred to as fiscal policies. Fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection, which is derived from income tax and expenditure, to impact the fluctuating economy. Some may opt to promote expansionary fiscal policy, while certain show more interest in contractionary fiscal policy. While there are many advantages to both, certain key factors set them apart from each other.