Monetary policy is enacted by a central bank that controls money supply that is circulating in the economy. This money supply influences inflation and interest rates that determine consumption level, employment rate and cost of debt. Expansionary monetary policy involves in buying treasury notes and declining interest rates on loans of central banks. These actions help in making the money supply to increase and making interest rates lower. This policy also makes consumption to be more attractive corresponding to savings.
In order to allow a stable expansion of the economy, the Fed primarily manages the growth of bank reserves and money supply through three main tools. To implement the task of controlling the money supply, the Fed may implement a change in reserve requirements, a change in discount rate or make open-market operations. (Cloutier, n.d.) The cash reserve ratio is the percentage of reserves a commercial bank is required to hold against deposits. If regulators decide to lower the cash reserve ratio, the commercial banks will be able to lend more thus increasing the supply of money or the amount of money in the economy. (Kaplan, 2002) An increase in the money supply would then lead to an increase in the amount of money that people and firms will be
By altering the cost, federal funds rate indirectly affects the spending and investment by households and businesses, which on their turn, impact output and inflation in the economy. The dynamic Three Equation Macro Model designed by Charles I. Jones allows us to trace the behavior of the Fed’s monetary policy and other economic variables over time when the economy is exposed to different kinds of shocks. The model incorporates IS curve along with the Phillips curve and the Taylor Rule, assuming the adaptive inflation
The value of a currency is the worth of it as compared to or with other currencies. The value of a currency against other currencies is the exchanged rate of that currency. Exchange rate management or control in countries differs. While some practice fixed exchange rate regime, others also allow the forces of demand and supply to determine the value (price) of the currencies. Currency fluctuations normally happen in countries where they practice the free exchange rate system.
It is just an instrument of commerce that enables people to exchange one good for another and produce more wealth. This means that money, paper or specie, just facilitates transactions because humans have formed a consensus over its ability to be used to buy or sell commodities. Hume follows this claim by introducing a theory which today is one of the foundations for macroeconomics: the quantity theory of money. He writes that “the prices of commodities are always proportioned to the plenty of money…” (Hume, II.III.1). This is very similar to the neo-classical quantity theory of money which also equates the price level being directly proportional to the money supply of a country.
Accrual accounting and Cash flow accounting are critical factors which contribute to judgments and decision-makings that lead to a successful business. It is debatable whether accrual accounting is preferred to cash flow accounting, while there are some financial economists are in favor of using cash flow basic to report. This chapter will first give a foundation of accrual and cash flow accounting, then discuss the advantages as well as drawbacks of both methods and give the conclusion which type of accounting is suitable to record. Accrual accounting is an accounting that revenues are recognized when sales have been made and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, even the cash receipt from the revenue or the cash payment related to
People use it to measure how much the company actually earn out of sales. It is used for comparing similar companies. The company with higher profit margin means it has a better cost-control. This ratio reminds company of suitable budgeting on cost and sale(Kong, 2007). Promotion According to Kettler (1988), promotion can be viewed as an essential motivational factor for making purchase, changing the sense of customers on price or product by adding extra benefits.
One other thing that Marx points out is the importance of money to capitol. In Marx’s writings he explains the difference of money as money and money as capitol. Another thing Marx describes in his writings is labor being an essential part of capitol. One thing labor leads to is valorization which is the process through which one starts with money and ends up with more money. This process of valorization leads to surplus
Macroeconomic policy is a framework of a set of rules and regulations that the government implements to control the nation’s economy, unemployment rate, inflation, recessions, money supply, growth rate, interest rate, and many more. The two main monitoring macroeconomic policies are: • Fiscal policy • Monetary policy What is fiscal policy? The spending policy implemented by the government that would affect the macroeconomic factors of the nation is known as fiscal policy. These policies control the nation’s unemployment rate, inflation, people’s buying behaviour determining to control the economy. In order to implement the fiscal policy, the government might reduce the taxes, which would let people pay less money on taxes and invest it somewhere
Use of Baumol Model The Baumol model enables companies to find out their desirable level of cash balance under certainty. And this theory relies on the tradeoff between the liquidity provided by holding money (the ability to carry out transactions) and the interest foregone by holding one’s assets in the form of non-interest bearing cash. The main variables of the demand for cash are then the nominal interest rate, the level of actual income which resembles to the amount of desired transaction and to a fixed cost of transferring one’s wealth between liquid money and interest bearing assets. Evaluation of the model Useful in determining optimal level of cash