4.1 What is Ethnic federalism? In a system of ethnic federalism, the federal units are classified according to their ethnicities within the country. In an ethnic federation, the units are created to monitor ethnic boundaries, providing ethnic communities with self-government. And these ethnic communities will be demarcated based on their
Various factors could have been influential in the development of national consciousness among the tribes and taking a shape of a proper Baloch identity. Development of a national identity among a group of people is the realization that they might possess a common history, religion, language, or race. It is necessary for the expression of nationalism for a community to identify itself as belonging to a large group of people having something in common. Weber (1976) argued that the nation must not be seen as a given reality but as a work in progress, a model of something to be built and to be treated for political reasons as already in existence. It is not only the objective factors like language, religion and culture that determine a national group, but, as observed by Connor (1990), it is also “self-awareness” and “self-consciousness” that provides the essential ingredient in the formation of a nation.
Now it is appropriate to turn to particular cultures . . . Every human society; therefore, has its own sociocultural systems” (Encyclopedia Britannica 2010, 876). When people with different cultural backgrounds came together, conflicts between them were inevitable.
The cultural environment produces and creates the given actors, which can, to some extent, be argued as a ‘vicious’ circle that reinforces the same assumptions of refugees as a problem in need of solution (Globalization 158). It can be indicated that the ‘existing categories’, namely, the assumption of refugee as a problem, carries out an outline for individuals to understand the world (Globalization 158). This knowledge will then be employed when another refugee ‘crisis’ evolve in order to interpret it (Globalization 158). As previously mentioned, this ‘vicious cycle’ can be argued as a strong factor in the society, and it may be difficult to create different understandings because of one’s cultural environment. These factors such as the cultural environment and its impact on the social construction of refugees has a great
1. Introduction Identity can take many forms in the society, from gender and sex to culture and family. Not only does identity define who we are but identity also influences the position we have in a society. When we talk about our identity in relation to culture or values, we often refer to the ethnic element. Ethnicity is a form of identity (based on Max Weber’s definition): “members of a group see themselves as similar and are perceived by others as similar by sharing physical resemblance and/or common customs and ancestry” (Hechter, 1976).
“Geo strategy is branch of geopolitics, which is mainly concern with geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning about any region. Furthermore geography is also known as the mother of strategy. Geographic location plays a crucial role in power politics, like that of tangible and intangible sources of power, geographic position is also considered as the natural source of power. As the term geography includes the physical characteristics of location and it is the unique geographic location which makes any region geo strategically significant. Gilgit Baltistan, in past known as the Northern Areas, is part of disputed state of Jammu and Kashmir, between India and Pakistan since 1947.
In these cases, the lingual, religious, and regional rhetoric was revived by the specific political parties. Ethnic narratives, whether invented or ascribed, through generations are at the heart of ethnicity. Ethnic account succour to achieve specific objectives, constitute powerful tools to re-evaluate their historical basis. Through ethnic narratives the ethnically designed objectives attain justification. Mobilization of Ethnic
The Belizean identity comprises of many cultures and sub- cultures due to our rich colonial/post-colonial influence. The diversity in race and ethnicity extends from the far reach of Europe to the southern and northern parts of the America’s. First and foremost in order to understand the full extent of identity one must know the difference between race and ethnicity. How does race influence our ethnicity? Race is the physical traits of a people, ethnicity, on the other hand, refers to cultural factors, including nationality, regional culture, ancestry, and language.
One, locality rooted in social formations and structures which are bound by lived material or cultural strands is positioned as a challenge to existing orderliness of established notions of nation-states. And two, the human movements which are core to globalization and economy innate to the contemporary world also pose as challenges to the idea of the nation-state. Appadurai identifies these challenges to the nation-state to be rooted in the formation of the entity of ‘translocalities.’ What do these ‘translocalities’ recreate that pushes the nation-state to curtail the dimensions of its meanings? First, the act of producing localities in human societies is a collective constitution in the sense that “the commitments and attachments that characterize local subjectivities are more pressing, more continuous, and sometimes more distracting than the nation-state can afford” (Appadurai 338). These attachments are often closely linked to their lived and spatial memories which are “at odds with the needs of the nation-state for regulated public life”
Since CDA sees discourse as both produced and shaped by ideology, it stresses the essential linguistic characteristics of social relationship, social structures and the power distributed among them. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used in different fields. However politics is regarded as the most important social fields in which CDA plays its valuable role that sometimes is called political – critical discourse analysis containing both political discourse and critical discourse. Based on contemporary approaches in CDA, political – critical discourse analysis deals with the reproduction of political power, power abuse or domination through political discourse, including various forms of resistance or counter-power against such forms of discursive dominance (Fairclough 1995; Van Dijk