“In society, men are considered the norm for the human species: their characteristics, thoughts, beliefs and actions are viewed as fully representing those of all humans, male and female” (Xiaolan Lei, 2006). This practice can make women be completely excluded and can indicate to their depiction as deviations from this 'male is equal to human ' standard. Denoted as autonomous, women’s language status is often reliant on or originates from that of men. Sexist language downgrades women to a dependent, lesser position and it prevents the depiction of women and men as different but equal human beings. Language essentially exposes this social fact.
Prescriptive as in, how men and women should behave, like agentic attributes are prescribed for men, while communal attributes are prescribed for women. Proscriptive as in, how men and women should not behave, like dominant "masculine" traits are proscribed for women and submissive "feminine" traits are proscribed for men. These societal expectations and roles may differ from culture to culture. However, it has been commonly identified that, to an extent, inequality prevails within work places based on the gender of the individual. Some of the common stereotypes that are often associated with women are negative, such as, they are considered to be individuals, who are incapable of taking quick decisions, who lack logical thinking and as someone who is sensitive and incapable of handling pressure and stress.
The Women’s Movement excluded women of color as well as queer women of color because the Anglo Women’s Movement focused on at least three positions: some wanted access to whatever men had access to, others felt that men had all the power and were responsible for women oppression, and others felt that women oppression was one of many in society that had to be corrected (NietoGomez 54). The Anglo Women’s Movement felt that they needed equal opportunities as men, while the Chicana Feminist Movement focused on racism, sexism, and classism. The Chicana Feminist Movement recognized that men did not have all the power because the Chicano men had no power, they made up for that lack of power through “male privilege” (NietoGomez 55). Due to so much oppression and machismo the Chicana Feminist Movement came to existence. The fact that there were two Women’s Movements hurt the strength of each movement because it was easier to divide and conquer; although it did hurt the movements strength, it
Kupers coined the term toxic masculinity to describe those aspects of masculinity that are harmful to men, women and/or society, like domination, devaluation of women, homophobia or violence. Not all aspects of traditional Western masculinity are considered negative and toxic masculinity excludes neutral or positive attributes. However, this begs the question whether positive and negative traits can be separated and whether traits are unambiguously negative or positive or if some are more ambivalent, depending on the context or intensity of the trait. The concept of psychological flexibility, the ability to adapt to a situation on different levels, might in some cases be an important complement to understand if a trait is toxic or
Language has been historically man-made with the male forms reflecting the male’s position in the society and the female forms perceived as deviant. Various lexical markings have also prevented women from expressing and raising consciousness about their own experience as legitimately human by preventing women from speaking with their own voice. One of the most common examples of gender bias in language is the use of pronouns, such as ‘he’ or ‘him’ to something related to both men and women. Another great example is that of master vs. mistress. There are unusual connotations surrounding the two terms and detriment to the female.
Expectations of roles within a culture may also support a sexist bigot; where generally males are expected to be masculine and females more feminine resulting in male possessing greater power and females being considered as the weaker sex. (Emerson Dobash, Russel P.Dobash ,1992) The distribution of power and role allocations allows men to be sexist and bigoted at the same time and impose these behavioral changes on women in the form of sexual and domestic
Did you not know that men are the true creators in our culture, Mother? They mould our lives and destinies according to their whims and desires’. (The Holy Woman, p.88) The Holy Woman, by Qaisra Shahraz, encapsulates the restrictions on the lives of women living under patriarchy. The Holy Woman highlights how the powerful social structures and feudal customs, centred on female body and sexuality, restrict women and are difficult to challenge. These customs and tradition are often nurtured, strengthened and kept alive through violent and unjust actions centred on women.
The researchers described two different barriers, difference barrier and societal barriers. First, the difference barrier is discrimination based upon bias or prejudice. Women are thought to be followers while men are thought to lead. Social role theory defines women as incapable of maintaining control and influence the way men can. Also, supply barrier defines an unfair advantage that men have over women regarding
According to vijay kumar Mehta,” Manju Kapur, the radical feminist, truly presents the hidden intricacies of women psyche in her novels. Her protagonists make an effort to dismantle the gender polarization up to a great extent Gender polarization is a concept that what is feminine cannot be masculine and what is masculine cannot be feminine. It is expected of men and women to display stereotypic gender roles. It utilizes the differences between the two groups of male and female to designate particular characteristics to group members of one group and not the other. Sandra Bem describes “the relationship between men and women as a division of social responsibilities.