Role Of Stakeholders In Tourism

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2.6 Role of Stakeholders in Sustainable Tourism Development
Stakeholders refer to any individual or groups of people that have an interest in the happening of an organization. In the word of Donaldson and Preston (1995), to be stakeholder; an individual or group must have a “legitimate interest” in the field, so, in sustainable tourism development, the stakeholders would be mainly the government, tourism organizations, local communities, tourists, voluntary sector organizations, educational institutions, media and other sectors who are involved in or affected positively or negatively by tourism.
Sustainable tourism development must have the full collaboration of different stakeholders elsewhere benefit will go only to the powerful ones (Dyer
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Stakeholder involvement is especially critical when interest group are required to assume a key role in the execution procedure and operation. Therefore, their participation required “commitment, transparency in the process and acknowledgement of alternative views, ideas, time and human resources” (Nelson.M, 2008). It must be noted that proper handled of participation for a project would be more easily to accept in the society.
Consistent with various authors, they facilitated stakeholder participation into formal and informal forms such as “public hearings, advisory committees, surveys, focus groups, public deliberation, citizen advisory/review panels, collaboration, civic review boards, work groups, implementation studies and written comments” (Byrd, 2007).
2.6.2 Strategic
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Its aims was to sum up resident attitudes toward sustainable tourism development by joining in 6 criteria of sustainability that are economic benefits, sociacultural impact of tourism, community-based benefits, visitor satisfaction, environmental sustainability and community participation with 159 items. Therefore, after the validation of academic experts and pilot survey. They concluded that SUS-TAS must consisted only 38 items which are relevant and not replicated in the questionnaire. Thus, it was divided into 7 factors respectively which resulting to envirnomental sustainability with 9 items and alpha of 0.89, social costs with 8 items and alpha of 0.88, economic benefits with 7 items and alpha of 0.86, community participation with 4 items and alpha of 0.79, long term planning with 4 items and alpha of 0.76, visitor satisfaction with 3 items and alpha of 0.74 and community-centered economy with 3 items of alpha

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