In his book "City, Class, Power," he emphasizes that urban problems become increasingly a political problem, caused by the combination of the consumption means with the socialization of the production means. Thus, the urban problems lead to play a strategic role in the course of everyday life. Castells (1997) based on two main reasons for the development of urban contradictions in the developed capitalist societies and their placement at the very center of the social and political sphere. The first is the essential role played by the consumption process in developed capitalism and the second is the expansion of the ideology of the city in a form specific to the dominant classes. State intervention for increased
Urbanization may be driven by local or global economic and social changes, and most of the time is the product of industrialization. As urban areas grow the population shifts from rural to urban areas, which is an example of how society adapts to change. The industrial revolution is the best example of this transformation to urban life, people wanted to upgrade their standard of living. This had both good and bad outcomes, the good was that it increased jobs and a bad outcome was that the life for the low class wasn’t that great. Most people were working for long hours for very little money to survive.
Financial capital: financial or economic capital (credit/debit, cash, savings, economic assets), are important for the attainment of any livelihood strategy. Rural economies are differentiated from urban economies by the sale of most basic produces. One common characteristic of an urban economy is such that food and housing are bought and rented through the market unlike the rural economies. This means that many urban dwellers
The approach involves some agencies interacting with socio-spatial structure and urban design can only be understood in its socio-spatial context. from this perspective, the technical, creative and social elements of urban design all come together to provide insight into this complex process and its products (Madanipour,