Studies took place in private hospitals, district hospitals and teaching hospitals. Case studies were chosen on the basis of factors such as incompleteness of official vital registration data, departure from study due to traditional methods of delivery at the woman's parental home, the problems involved in many such home deliveries, and the logistics of covering the vast geographical area with limited resources and a research team of just four persons. The maternal deaths occurring between 15 and 45 years of age were noted from medical and societal institutions. The study included the determination of pregnancy-related and maternal deaths, in which the ICD-10 definition of ‘maternal death’ was used. The controls were derived from the population from which the cases belonged.
It is because of this tension that an individual might react in a way that reduces the tension in him. Job Characteristics Theory Hackman and Oldham (1976); Schermerhorn (1984); Hellriegel, Jackson and Slocum (1999) and Dugguh (2008) cited by Ali et al. (2015: 419) proposed a framework to study how particular job characteristics affect job outcomes and job satisfaction. The framework states that there are a number of core job characteristics that impact on job outcomes and they are: • Variety of skills: it includes the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work and involves the use of different skills and talents of the
There was always a defined line between men and women when it came to power, respect, autonomy, and much more. This is also brought up in the three other readings. Furthermore, McClintock noticed how women, especially colonized women were at a large disadvantage within their society. Not only does their darker skin color bring them at a disadvantage, but their gender as well. They were not autonomous people nor did they have personal or political sovereignty.
The present study aimed to explore the predictive ability of frailty index in mortality and need for care among older Swedes. Frailty index was also compared with multimorbidity and limitations in ADLs which are the traditional benchmarks for the mortality and need for care prediction. The frailty index showed an association with mortality among females with the shorter, but not the longer follow-up time (≤17 and >17 years, respectively). This difference may originate from the fact that the females in the former group were also older (median age 74 vs. 56 years). Thus, this difference may also reflect the fact that the frailty index predicts mortality only among old females, but not among the young in our population.
Question 6: What roles can manager’s plays in helping their employees to use a problem - focused strategy to cope with excessive job stress? Introduction: The definition of stress is a person’s adaptive response to stimulant that places excessive psychological and physical demands on him or her. Employees stress is a growing concern for organizations today. The Stressors may be physical or psychological in nature and place an excessive demand on an individual. Job stress dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or request related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
For this purpose, through literature review and survey of experts opinions selected from the Iranian construction industry, 60 factors were identified and categorized in five major groups, including labors-related, material and equipment related, management and organizational related, technical related, and external related factors. The interrelations among these factors were modeled based on the SD. Then, using the causal loop diagrams resulted from SD and applying the DEMATEL method the most important factors influencing and influenced by labor productivity were identified. According to the results, factors such as fatigue, lack of labors motivation, schedule pressure, poor skillfulness and extreme weather condition are the most influencing factors on labor productivity. And schedule delay, schedule pressure and costs of execution are the most important influenced factors by labor productivity.
Extrinsic motivation: Extrinsic motivation refers to motivational factors affecting the employee from the work environment outside the job content environment. This includes factors such as working conditions, leadership and compensation. Leadership: Although it is impossible to say which human resources management process has the most profound effect on employee functioning during the throughput phase, leadership is certainly one of the most important influencing factors. Quality of work life and social responsibility: The responsibility of an organisation towards its employees is strongly emphasises today. Quality of work life programmes and the involvement of an organisation in social responsibility affects employee’s duration of service with that organisation.
This model supports the idea of a relationship between personal characteristics and absence. This is because the decision to attend or not is, as suggested by Steers and Rhodes, influenced by the employee 's personal characteristics (Steers and Rhodes, 1978). Another theory that can be related to the variables of this research is the Maslow’ hierarchy need of theory which is related with the job satisfaction variable. A significant number of literature review on motivation stated that, employee has problem regarding what they want from their job. Hence, these decisions have been based on Maslow 's needs hierarchy, including the factor of prepotency.
The effects of stress can be either positive or negative. What is perceived as positive stress by one person may be perceived as negative stress by another, since everyone perceives situations differently. Stress is becoming a major illness in the work environment, and it can be debilitate employees and can be costly to employers. Managers need to identify those suffering from negative stress and implement programs as a defense against stress. These programs may reduce the impact stress has on employee’s work performance.
Internal strengths and weaknesses are written at the top row of a 2 X 2 grid as shown in Figure 3, which can include organization structure, availability of natural resources, scope and productivity, and financial resources. External opportunities and threats are written down in the bottom row of the grid, which can include customers, competitors, market trends, partners and suppliers, social shifts, advancement in technology, and various environmental economic, political and regulatory affairs. SWOT analysis promotes the identification of relationships between these factors as well as the development of suitable direction for organizations to follow (Proctor, 1992; Marilyn M. Helms, Judy Nixon,