(2012), parenting styles are crucial agents that influencing all aspects and stages of a child 's development. According to Maccoby & Martin (1983) (as cited in Ishak et al., 2012) parenting is a continuum and includes two significant elements “responsiveness” and “demandingness”. According to Baurmind (1991); the parental demandingness refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family as a whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys’’ and responsiveness refers to ‘‘the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to children’s special needs and
Family is the basic unit in the life of an individual. And every family needs to have parents that serve as the pillars of this unit. Parents are assumed to become the primary source of the child 's physical, emotional, or intellectual disability. Both parents perceived different roles in rearing their child. Parenting contributes to a child’s holistic development which includes responsibilities of being a parent enumerated as a caregiver, nurturer, teacher, role model, and a financial provider.
Academic achievement is considered by scholars as one of the main goals for the school-age children (García Coll & Szalacha, 2004). According to modern theories, child development and his progress in school is related to some personal factors such as gender, socio-economic background of the family, the interaction of the child with the family environment, and family cooperation with the school (Bronfenbrenner, 1998, Cicchetti & Toth, 2000, Eitle 2005, Jacobs & Harvey, 2005). One of the most comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding the development of the child and their academic achievements is the theory of Epstein (1997, 2005, 2011) known differently as the model of overlapping spheres. This model is focused on the roles that
INTRODUCTION : PARENTAL THEORIES : Parental theories are cultural models that parents hold regarding their children, families and themselves as parents. Although cultural variability is manifest in the actions , customs and behaviours of whole social groups (societies) the most fundamental expression of culture is found at the individual level . this expression can only occur after an individual has been socialized by its parents , family, extended family and extended social networks . Culture refers to many characteristics of a group of people, including attitudes, behaviours, customs and values that are transmitted from one generation to the next (Matsumoto, 2000). Cultures throughout the world share many similarities, but are marked by considerable differences.
The family plays numerous different roles in society and has various different functions. “For most people, the core attributes of self are formed within the family, for that is where children first acquire a strong sense of identity and personal significance or insignificance.” (Nash and Calonico 1993 p.53) According to Nash and Calonico, family is a clear example of “the ‘primary group’ and is, therefore, an important agent of socialisation.” (Nash and Calonico 1993
From the movie ‘Inside Out’, the researchers can conclude that there are two major social institutions involved. They are family and education institution. Education institution is important to every individual because it transmits culture and train the new generations to live in a society. This institution directly influences us humans’ behaviours, thoughts, emotions and even trust. There are two types of education which is formal and informal education.
Therefore, when curriculum developers plan the curriculum content, they need to consider all these factors. In the traditional societies, education is processed through ceremonies, rituals, stories and observation. On the other hand, in the modern societies, children start the educational processes at home and parents are the best teachers for them. Yet, schools will take over the responsibility as they become older. Schools become the essential institution to provide systematic knowledge to children by instilling proper values and attitudes in a younger generation.
These agents play important role in the process of socialization. Family plays the first and important role of socialization. Family impacts the norms and values of life in a child. Family helps in the upbringing of a child by teaching various skills, impacting knowledge, and disciplining the child. Every member of the family plays an important role of socialization in the life of a child.
it is fine-tuned and developed through personal experiences, in combination with the values that our immediate society (the social circle in which we live and the people with whom we interact) lends to us. The new born is considered partially autonomous, in the sense of having specific gunas. The very specificity of the gunas constellation imposes certain limits on socialization of the child. The nature of an individual’s first relationship, i.e. with his mother, profoundly influences the quality and dynamics of social relations throughout his life.
He has identified four basic parental roles- parents as educational decision makers; parents as parents; parents as teachers and parents as advocates. Since the parent 's attitude is so important, it is essential that the home and school work closely together, especially for children with disabilities. The Warnock (1978) stresses the importance of parents being partners in the education of their children. The role of parents should actively support and enrich the educational processes. Korth (1981) states that parents should be recognized as the major teacher of their children and the professional should be considered consultants to parents.