Meaning, the bureaucracy handles responsibilities in a timely and efficient manner. Mentioned above, low pay deters executives from joining the public sector but it also deters those at the entry-level positions as well. Recruitment for the bureaucracy now includes tests to assist in finding candidates who can fulfil the requirements of the position and to be as fair as possible. For government positions, the required qualifications are truly required for the positions. While in the private sector if the hiring manger really likes the candidate or the candidate comes with excellent references, the company can overlook their lack of qualifications and still offer the candidate the job, in the public sector this is not an option.
However as expected the public service rules and regulation in the focal platform framework of law to regulate employee’s behavioral patterns in government establishments. As a matter of fact, this will help to coordinate and remove excessive activities in government office and ensure prompt uniformly, and ethnical driven actions of government employee’s. ETHICS AND CORRUPTION DEFINED: Mato and Mutiullah (2014) the meaning of ethics is contested while some authors define it in terms of what it is not referring to matters such as misconduct, corruption, fraud and other types of illegal behaviour, others refers to notions of integrity, honesty, personas values and professional
Vigoda (2003:9) notes that questions of budgeting and financing the public sector as well as bringing more economic rationality to decision making process usually conflict with political considerations. ‘Checks and balance’ to the system are mostly monitored and controlled by politicians, political parties rather than professionals and practitioners of administration’. Wilson believed that if Public administration could be separated from practical politics and influences of spoilt system it must develop on scientific lines on its own (Naidu,
1.1 Introduction Media is the backbone of democracy. The role of media in our society is very significant. Media supply the political information to the viewers that help them to make their opinion. Media also plays the watchdog role in society to identify the problems and wrongdoing of those who have the authority. Elections are a main part of the democratic structure and highlight the basic features of formation of a government and political structuring of a specific state (Shively, 2003).
This definition focuses on the actual concluded action of government rather than what is proposed or intended. Also, Ikelegbe (2006:3) on his part, conceived public policy simply as “government actions or course of actions, or proposed actions or course of proposed actions that are directed at achieving certain goals”. According to Sharkansky (1970:4), “public policy refers to important activities of government”. The reality however is that public policy embraces all governmental activities or outputs as it affects members of the society, and cannot be limited only to important activities of government. It is “a series of goal-oriented actions taken by government actors” (Leichter, 1975:19).
3.2.1 Ideal or bureaucratic approach In this approach, structures of groups are evaluated in relations of their horizontal and vertical difference as well as the span of control. Policies are examined as well as the framework of purpose is determined 3.2.2 Structural-functional approach This is a very popular approach for associating various administrative structures. It studies the society in relations of the numerous structures and their functions for getting an understanding concerning their positioning and functioning. Organisations in this approach can refer to the government. The only limits of this approach is that there has to be correct identification of the organisations before examining them 3.2.3 Ecological approach The ecological
CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS In our organizational analysis of NIMHANS, the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences in Bangalore, we begin with a question: Are public and private organizations fundamentally alike in some respects? The central elements of the argument supporting the theory that public and private organizations are fundamentally different in key respects are, first of all, that public interests differ from private interests, since the public sector must consider a broader set of norms and values. Many considerations must be weighed against each other, and democratic considerations, constitutional values and public welfare are given much more weight in public organizations than in private organizations. Second, the leaders of public organizations are accountable to citizens and voters rather than to special groups. Third, public organizations require a greater emphasis on openness, transparency, equal treatment, impartiality and predictability.
Introduction: Public Policy is a broad term, it refers to the policies which are formulated and implemented for the benefit of public. The term Public Policy always refers to the actions of the Government and their intentions of taking those actions. Policy Making requires choosing among the competing interests, and choice always involves intentions. Policy making is seldom a single action; it is most often followed by a series of actions, aimed to achieve desired goal. Public Policies are the governmental programs, goals, actions or decisions which are expressed in a range of forms, including governmental rules, laws, and legal ordinances, acts, court decisions and Executive Orders etc.
On the other hand, dependence on powerful structures and financial resources can handicap the media's ability to be an effective watchdog in political life. Although in democratic society, governments and political parties do not put direct pressure on the media, the competition and the free market rules create different restrictions for journalists and their employers. In a bid to maximize profit, commercial TV channels are forced to respond to the interests of advertisers. In this context, public broadcasters are expected to be more independent and closer to the democratic ideal. Researchers insist that sometimes they serve the public interest better than their commercial
The reduction of the size of public sector contains two different but two interrelated stances i.e. rightsizing of human resources within the sector and role played by the state as mentioned in (Priyantha, 2008). Nevertheless, inducing private sector practices into public sector is a major challenge for the policy makers (Stephen, 2007; Tompkins, 2002). The modern Human Resource Management (HRM) demands autonomy and flexibility in decision making which is rare phenomenon in public organization because of centralized structure in the public sector organizations of Pakistan. Public Enterprises being statuatory bodies are autonomous in their decision making process and in managing human resources.