Lobbying is the is the effort to influence policy formulation and decision-making with a view to obtaining some designated result from government authorities and elected representatives (Council of Europe, 2013). 'Pressure groups' are a key element of politics and their activity is an indispensable and legitimate aspect of the legislative process. However, in light of recent scandals involving lobbyists and legislators, the public perception of the phenomenon is highly-distorted. Lobbying is reduced to a grey area where individual interests meet those of the political class. This conception of lobbying is closely linked to the lack of effective regulatory regimes.
Based on Brian McNair (1995), it means that “the wide variety of practices whereby political actors may seek to control, manipulate or influence media organizations in ways which correspond to their political objectives.” Embrace actions projected to maintain and sustain a positive relationship concerning the politicians and the media involved in the media management. For politicians, they need to fulfill the media organizations on what they wants such as news, information or entertainment and at the same time utilizing their influence over on how that something is interceded or presented to the
The relationship between the society and media; the relationship between media and audience; the relationship between society and audience. The first one, the relationship between society and media, explains that within this relationship, access to media and the availability is the important antecedent for the people to use media. The nature of media dependence on societal systems may vary in terms of politics, economy and culture. The second relationship is between media and audience, this is the key variable in this theory because it affects how the people use a medium. This relationship also vary because of different media systems.
Journalism with a global perspective is needed to help citizens understand the daunting global problems of poverty, technological inequalities political instability and even environmental degradation. Thus, the line between inutile news and incumbent news must be drawn, and strictly followed. Ethics in media is a relevant and necessary topic in today’s ‘Age of Information’. Only if news outlets and journalists maintain scruples in their trade, and observe the mandatory ethics required during disseminating information, can topics of importance and delicate contexts be dealt with efficiently and in a manner befitting their
Since the majority of the revenue of major media outlets drives from advertising (not from sales or subscriptions), advertisers have acquired a "de facto licensing authority". Media outlets are not commercially viable without the support of advertisers. News media must therefore cater to the political prejudices and economic desires of their advertisers. This has weakened the working class press, for example, and also helps explain the attrition in the number of newspapers. Then, the filter that they use Sourcing Mass Media News by Herman and Chomsky argue that “the large bureaucracies of the powerful subsidize the mass media, and gain special access to the news to get the info, by their contribution to reducing the media’s costs of acquiring and producing, news.
The media elite As we have already concluded that the media do not occur by themselves, remains to accept that global elite create media. The concentration of power necessarily includes the concentration of media ownership, because it allows the manipulative use of media in order to provide power in society or group. The effects on media audiences is becoming a privilege of the elite that control the media manage to sell their ideas, opinions and attitudes. This action favors the elite difficulty getting around and inexperience "average" person in communication processes. In this way the elite affects the public, which imperceptibly lead to the desired and planned responses.
Because one of the role of news media is playing mediator role between the public and other world. Holding public trust on specific news media is the main task because who trust them will be prepared to wait for their latest version. In fact, news organization might use reliable sources to check whether a hastily prepared item by a competitor has any truth in it. As McCombs (2002), point out the role of mediator as what we know about the world is largely based on what the media decide to tell us. He stated that, “the result of this mediated view of the world is that the priorities of the media strongly influence the priorities of the public; Elements prominent on the media agenda become prominent in the public mind” (McCombs, 2002, P. 2).
The Mass media has an obligation to circulate accurate information to the public, promote unbiased news dissemination and be willing to rectify false information released to the public. Although the Mass media promote transparency for policymakers and public bodies, they too manipulate information to suit their biases. As a result, the media nowadays is a powerful tool for political parties, special interest groups and the elite to use influence public opinion. Russia allegedly interfered in the 2016 US presidential election by hacking some of the major candidates’ private communication platforms and broadcast them to media houses. This manipulation impacted voter’s opinion, the polls turned around and an unlikely candidate won the election.
The Media is an important tool in providing free access of information and opinion, thereby allowing a democratic process to function in a meaningful way. The media serves as a counter-balance to government power. The propaganda model focuses on the effect money and social power has over media outlets and the abilities of individuals and corporations who possess adequate funds and positions of power to filter the news. In the propaganda model, Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky argued that, there is a certain class within society (the dominant elite) who sets the agenda of national and international news to the tiers of the media that flows to the rest of the society. In the past, intellectuals were targeted by governments and corporations to disseminate information or propaganda to the general public.
Mass media plays an important role in affecting the political situation nowadays. Political scientists always try to study the impact of mass media on politics and on the society. Some political scientists argue that mass media should be only a tool of communication between people and government. This can be done by informing people about the recent news or recent political decisions taken by government and providing the people with many points of views without being biased to a single opinion. While others argue that mass media are often biased politically and they are a growing unaccountable power.