3.) MRSA is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin, methicillin, etc.) and can be more virulent and invasive than Staphylococcus Aureus. MRSA carries the mecA gene, which allows the bacterium to fully construct a cell wall by coding for the penicillin binding
However, drug abusers and individuals who suffer from weakened immune systems make up a small percentage of the population, which is why B. subtilis is seen as a non-pathogenic bacteria. B. subtilis can be used as a biological control throughout many different commercial industries. B. subtilis has the ability to produce large amounts of antibacterial and antifungal metabolites that are utilized in the suppression of phytopathogenic microorganisms. Its ability to secrete its own proteins into the medium allows it to
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), assume a key part in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is an aggravation of the gums which takes place after gingivitis when left untreated. Abundance microorganisms make pockets in the gums that harm the supporting structure of the teeth. MMPs contain enzymatic movement which is managed by tissue inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). These proteins aid tissue redesigning and furthermore debase the extracellular matrix found inside the gums and result in the negative harm of them too.
He continues saying in tadpoles, the mouth parts are the only parts of the body possessing keratin, and therefore is susceptible to infection (9034). Rachowicz and Vredenburg state this can lead to depigmentation around the mouth, and occasionally defects in the region. They found the mouth defect in only one of the infected Rana muscosa tadpoles from their experiment. During metamorphosis, anuran skin becomes progressively more keratinized, allowing the infection to spread to other regions of the body. Nichols et al.
Tetanus can enter the body by; animal bites, skin burns, body piercing and tattoos done with unsterile tools, injection of drugs with contaminated needles, abrasion and laceration, and even circumcision. Once the bacterial spores have access into the body they multiply at an alarming rate, and deposit tetanospasmin throughout the body. If the lesion is deep the bacterial toxin can thrive better, even with no or little oxygen. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin that directly targets the nervous system.
HISTORY The development of dentistry during the 19th century in combination with the germ theory of disease had a direct effect on the practice of dentistry. Irrigation in 19th century Literature from this period mostly contained numerous empirically based recommendations for a variety of rinsing agents and medicaments, such as pulp extirpation under a pool of oil of eucalyptus and cloves was advocated, the rationale being that these oils would penetrate the canal as the nerve was removed. Arsenic was introduced by Shearjashub Spooner et al (1836)4 to destroy the nerves of the teeth without causing pain. However, some cases of fatal consequences were reported due to the use of Arsenic and daily dressing with thorough canal irrigation was
Standard Precautions and Isolation Techniques Standard Precautions first appeared in 1996 as a revision of CDC isolation procedures and is a synthesis of two other precautions, including Universal Protection (UP) and also Body Substance Isolation (BSI) (Craig 111). This applies to all patients that receive health care in patient care facilities, regardless of infection status and diagnostics (Craig 111). This is because microorganisms and bacteria grows best when environments contain moisture, warmth, and a good food supply and can spreads through the nose, mouth, or open wounds. Standard precautions also include different types of isolation techniques, including Strict Isolation, Respiratory Isolation, Enteric Isolation, and Reverse Isolation. (Craig 111-116).
Human to human transmission is extremely rare and reported only with cutaneous anthrax. When the animal dies due to anthrax, the animal carcasses become infectious, and when the animal decomposes, the spores can again mix with the soil and the transmission cycle continues. The bacterium often penetrates the body via wounds in the skin and may also infect humans as aerosol or ingestion. The ability of sporulation and resistance of the spores to harsh environmental conditions like heat and humidity, disinfectants and UV radiation makes anthrax the most important biological warfare agent. It is reported that the spores can survive up to 40 years in water or soil.
Serratia: Serratia’s a group of gram (-negative), facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Serratia are most common and pathogenic of the species within the genus, S. marcescens, is often the sole infective agent and frequently causes health facility infections. S. marcescens is often found in showers, bathroom bowls, and around wetted tiles. The bacterium is associate timeserving, human infective agent, capitalizing on its ability to make integrated surface communities referred to as biofilms where it will. S. marcescens is assumed to be transmitted through close transmission.
DMSO is a potent scavenger of the free radical but maintaining normal integrity of cells and tissues. DMSO acts as synergistic drug with other therapeutic agents [Dake1967]. DMSO is bacteriostatic in 20% concentration against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and