The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that envelop the shoulder joint to connect the humerus to the scapula and allow movement of the joint. (5) The four muscles are: the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the teres minor, and the subscapularis. (1) The supraspinatus is located above the scapular spine on the posterior of the scapula and attaches to the supraspinous fossa on the scapula (10). The infraspinatus is below the scapular spine and attaches to the infraspinous fossa on the scapula (11). The teres minor is found on the lateral border of the scapula (9).
The reflex causes the ipsilateral pupil to dilate (Campbell & DeJong, 2005). The ciliospinal reflex is a test of ocular sympathetic function (Turner, 2012). The ciliospinal reflex depends primarily on the integrity of the sensory nerve fibers from the area of the skin being stimulated, the upper thoracic sympathetic motor neurons, and the ascending cervical sympathetic chain (Rand Swenson, 2008). The sympathetic fibers that supply the dilator pupillae muscles are believed to originate in the posterolateral hypothalamus. The sympathetic fibers project and synapse in the sympathetic cell column from vertebrae C8 to T2.
The middle nerve can do lots of works that can supplies the sensation to an index finger, thumb, and half part of a ring finger and the middle finger and also for the control of the motor thick muscle in the thumb base. Some of the other kinds of the carpel tunnel syndrome symptoms includes the pain or feeling at the thumb, middle finger, index finger and some of the times in the small finger and the ring finger are the lack of circulation, cold, numb, asleep and also ahs the needles and the pins. The irritation of the carpel tunnel syndrome was normally because the severe pain in the morning times and also for the night time due to we are shaken our and fold our hands in the night time. The pain will be spread for the hand such as fingers, elbow, wrist as well as some of the other kinds of the places. This can cause the irritation and the pressure for your
“The ACL is one of the four major ligaments that works to stabilize and support the knee. The ACL is “behind the patella and connects the Femur to the tibia,” (McDaniel). It prevents the tibia from moving too far forward on the femur and it limits the rotational movement of the knee,”(“Why do Females”). Basically the ACL is a stabilizer of the knee (McDaniel). An ACL injury happens when the ligament has been overstretched or when when it is torn.
Hoehn). An antagonist is a muscle that reverses, or opposes, the action of another muscle. A synergist is a muscle that aids the action of a prime mover by effecting the same movement or by stabilizing joints across which the prime which the prime mover acts, preventing undesirable movements. The sliding filament model of contraction states that during contraction the thin filaments slide past the “thick ones so that the actin and myosin filaments overlap to a greater degree” (Marieb & Hoehn). When the nervous system stimulates muscle fibers, the myosin heads on the thick filaments latch onto myosin-binding sites on actin in the thin filaments, and the sliding begins.
placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Accurate screw placement is dependent on the exposure and identification of the posterior elements including the lateral border of the pars interarticularis, the entire transverse process and the caudal and cephalad facet joints(13). The pedicle entry point is at the intersection of the vertical line that forms the extension of the facet joint in line with the bony crest coming from the superior articular facet, and the horizontal line that passes through the middle of the transverse process insertion, or 1-2mm below the joint line(14). In Patel?s retrospective cohort study, they demonstrated statistically significant higher blood loss in patients who underwent open posterior lateral or posterior lumbar interbody fusion, compared to minimally invasive techniques(15). The open technique of placing pedicle screws therefore requires much dissection to expose the posterior vertebral elements and is associated with more blood loss and complications when compared to minimally invasive procedures.
The human body contains numerous bursa sacs located between various tissues and bones. The bursa sacs act as a lubricant to aid in the continuous range of movement in a free manner. When a bursa sac becomes inflamed or irritated, the result is painful bursitis. In the elbow, bursitis can restrict movement as the amount of lubricant increases and swelling occur. The treatment options for elbow bursitis have numerous contributing factors.
Brachial plexus injuries: The brachial plexus is a somatic network of nerve fibers that provides motor and sensory innevation to the upper limb as well as the shoulder girdle. Brachial plexus injuries are an uncommon complication in gynecologic laparoscopy surgeries, but it is one of the most serious and unfortunate complications due to improper positioning of anesthetized patient (13, 25). Extensive arm abduction, external rotation and posterior shoulder displacement can result in brachial plexus stretch and ischemia (11). Romanowski et al. retrospectively reviewed 3200 records of advanced laparoscopic surgeries the figure out the frequency of brachial plexus injuries.
These include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), and the medial collateral ligament (MCL). These ligaments prevent anterior translation of the tibia, prevent posterior translation of the tibia, prevent varus stress of the knee, and prevent valgus stress of the knee, respectively. Between the femur and tibia, there are cartilage discs called