This act has negative or positive results that the teenager perceived. Some mode of adaptation focuses on promotes the ability of human adaptive systems to adjust effectively to changes in the environment and also to create changes in the environment. So it will help to find out the effects of teenage pregnancy on mother and baby and help to prevent the teenage pregnancy. In Roy Adaptation Model guided research participants may be individuals or groups who are well or ill. Qualitative and quantitative approaches of research will be appropriate for the study. Data may be gathered in any health care setting in which human adaptive systems are found.
“The environment includes focal, contextual and residual stimuli. A focal stimulus is the confrontation with one’s internal and external environment. The individual immediately resists these internal and external stimuli” (Ursavaş, Karayurt, & İşeri, 2014, p.136). The Adaptation model is the brainchild of Sister Callista Roy. In the mid 1970’s, Roy, a professor at Mount Saint Mary’s College, felt that nursing needed to be more than a person who monitored vital signs and handed out medication for patients recovering from illness in the hospital.
In 1976, Sister Callista Roy developed the Adaptation Model of Nursing, a prominent nursing theory. Nursing theories frame, explain or define the provision of nursing care. Roy's model sees the individual as a set of interrelated systems (biological, psychological and social). The individual strives to maintain a balance between these systems and the outside world, but there is no absolute level of balance. Individuals are trying to live within a changing environment in which the individual need to cope with it.
Sister Callista Roy states that the adaptive theory states that humans are biopsychosocial beings existing within an environment. Needs are created within interrelated adaptive modes such as physiological self-concept, role function and interdependence.There are many theories that could work and none of them are wring, but for this one adaptive nurses would be more helpful. Each patient is different and should be cared based on the individual needs of the particular patient. Roy’s adaptation theory is made up of four main components which are the person, health, environment and nursing. The person, who is describes as a bio-psycho-social being in constant contact with a changing environment.
Currently, all three methods perform on parallel planes in the academic community although qualitative approach is still viewed as inadequate for the natural sciences. O’Cathain, Murphy, & Nicholl, (2007) argued in favour of mixed methods design, partly because of the strong position attributed to this method in recent research activities. Creswell & Plano Clark (2011) agreed that mixed methods has matured significantly and can now directly compliment the traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods. With the ever increasing popularity of qualitative methodology, researchers in social sciences and other disciplines have yet another methodology from which to choose.
A research method consists of four methods to gain data, which is questionnaire,interviews and observation. According to Bowling (2005) researcher need to consider the requirement of method of collecting data depends on the quality and accuracy. In this research study planned to use the questionnaire, focus group and interview method to gain in-depth information on the researcher topic “Reading and language development through play for Early years ESL Students”. Action Research
Chapter 4: Research Methodology 4.1. Introduction This chapter discusses research methodology that was used to conduct study. There are elements which are employed for conducting research .According to the Crotty (1998) there are three elements which offer practical guide for conducting social research whether it is quantitative or qualitative and those are methods, methodology and theoretical perspective. 4.2. Qualitative Approach This research adopts qualitative approach.
(Brown 2009, p. 187) Conclusions The development of a field of study depends on the convergence of scholars around a set of clear and widely accepted principles for doing ‘good research’. It outlines five methods, used to varying degree of frequency in past research. A comparative analysis of how researchers use these methods helps us contextualize them within respective premises, and uncover the constructs, processes and questions that can be more appropriately investigated by each method. By doing so, we hope to make a better selection of tools for data collection and analysis, consistent with specific research interests and paradigmatic assumptions. Organizational identity researchers have already begun to acknowledge the relevance of each other’s work by citing and drawing on works from other bodies of research.
1.1 Mixed Research Method : In mixed research method the study is based on mixed methodology, i.e. both qualitative and quantitative research technique. It is the third most significant type of research method. The mixed research methodology provides most reliable results. 1.2 Interview: The type of interview used for a research study is usually an in-depth interview.
Components of household adaptive capacity consist of the crucial elements that enhance their abilities to tackle future risks (Eakin, 2005). Livelihood adaptation is a response to long-term process in contrast to coping strategies, which refer to short-term livelihood reactions in the consequence of unplanned or unforeseen crises following events like droughts or floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change definition of adaptation as ‘‘an adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities’’ (McCarthy, 2001: 869) has a compelling attention on the precise threats caused by climate change. The sustainable livelihood framework (Chambers and Conway, 1992; Scoones, 1998; Ellis, 2000) on the other hand emphasis on how people use livelihood assets (human, natural, financial, social, and physical) in a context of shocks, trends and seasonality. The choice of strategies is mediated by structures (e.g., levels of government, private sector) and processes (e.g., laws, policies, culture, institutions) and results in livelihood outcomes, such as income, well-being, or food security (Chambers and Conway, 1992; Ellis, 2000).