Roy's Model: The Adaptation Model Of Nursing

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In 1976, Sister Callista Roy developed the Adaptation Model of Nursing, a prominent nursing theory. Nursing theories frame, explain or define the provision of nursing care. Roy's model sees the individual as a set of interrelated systems (biological, psychological and social). The individual strives to maintain a balance between these systems and the outside world, but there is no absolute level of balance. Individuals are trying to live within a changing environment in which the individual need to cope with it. (Andrews and Roy, 1991)
This model includes the four space ideas of individual, wellbeing, environment, and nursing; it additionally includes a six-stage nursing procedure. Andrews and Roy (1991) state that the individual can be a
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In the first step, the individual's conduct in each of the four modes is observed. This behaviour is compared with norms and is deemed either adaptive or ineffective. The second step is concerned with factors that influence behaviour. Stimuli are classified as focal (are those that confront the person in a specific circumstance), contextual (are those other stimuli that influence the situation) or residual (include the individual’s beliefs or attitudes that may influence the situation). The nursing diagnosis is the statement of the ineffective behaviours along with the identification of the probable cause. In the fourth step, goal setting is the focus. Goals need to be realistic and attainable and are set in collaboration with the person. Intervention occurs as the fifth step, and this is when the stimuli are manipulated. It is also called the 'doing phase' (Roy and Roberts, 1981). In the final stage, evaluation happens. The degree of change as evidenced by change in behaviour, is determined. Ineffective behaviours would be reassessed, and the interventions would be revised (Roy and Roberts,…show more content…
The individual is viewed as a biopsychosocial being who is continually interacting with the environment. The individual's goal through this interaction with environment is adaptation or adjustment. Roy and Roberts state 'The individual has two major internal processing subsystems, the regulator and the cognator." These subsystems are the instruments utilized by individuals to adapt to stimulus from the inside and outer environment. The regulator strategy works essentially through the autonomic nervous system and incorporates endocrine, neural, and perception pathways. This strategy prepares the individual for adapting with environmental
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