It also has a cell wall made of chitin. Fungi are quite different from algae, plants, and animals. Fungi cannot make their own food and do not ingest their food, they absorbs nutrients from the environment that is outside of its body. There are three major phyla of fungi, the zygomycetes, ascomycetes, and basidiomycetes (Reece et al. p.
Plant that has a fungus can be called as a host whether the association is beneficial or not. Many terms such as symbiont, associate, mycobiont and inhabitant can be used to label mycorrhizal fungi inside the plants, but it is just acceptable to address them as fungi (Brundrett, 2004). 2.2 The Role of Mycorrhizal Fungi The seedlings of many rain forest species are mycotrophic and their
Almost all fungi are heterotrophic in nature and all are aerobic thus they do not occur in diverse environment as bacteria. Importance: 1. Fungi are important in decomposition of organic residues in soil 2. They are especially important in decomposing woody material which many bacteria cannot decompose. 3.
(2008) tested efficacy of ten fungicides, viz Aliette, Antracol, Benlate, Cobox, Daconil, Derosal, Dithane, Polyram, Ridomil and Topsin-M, at Tarnab Farm, Peshawar, in 2006 against onion downy mildew caused by Peronospora destructor Berk. Each of the fungicides was sprayed three times at an interval of 10 days following appearance of the disease symptoms. All the fungicides were found to be effective in controlling the disease. Ridomil was the most effective in reducing the disease severity and enhancing yield, followed by Topsin-M, Aliette and Antracol. Sprays with Ridomil also resulted in the least number of dead plants, greatest plant height, most abundant leaves per plant, and largest number and weight of medium, large and total
They excrete large quantities of honeydew that encrust the leaves, canes and clusters, resulting in further crop damage and defoliation. Sooty moulds colonize the honeydew coated grapes and leaves causing them to look dark and unsightly and this leads to reduce fruit quality and lower tree vitality through the loss of photosynthetic capacity (Godfrey et al., 2002). Moreover, P. ficus transmits Grapevine Leafroll-associated Virus 3 (GLRa V3) (Engelbrecht, Kasdorf 1990 and Golino et al. 2002); therefore, it is considered a dangerous pest even at low infestation
Plants that are affected by cotton blue disease are identified by leaf rolling, vein yellowing, a moderate to severe stunting due to shortening of internodes, and dark green to bluish coloration of leaves  Fusarium wilt It is a vascular wilt fungal disease, which is identified by symptoms similar to Verticillium wilt. The pathogen that causes this disease is Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) . The symptoms produced by Fusarium oxysporum are identified as limping, loss of green color, necrosis, dropping of leaf prematurely, browning of the vascular system, retarding, and damping-off . Texas root rot Texas root rot is also known as Phymatotrichopsis root rot, which is a pathogen. It causes sudden droop and death of affected plants, usually during the months which are warmer.
Anthracnose is caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and is a major fungal disease problem in South Africa. It is responsible for reducing production of avocados and fruit quality. It causes the biggest losses during transport, storage and marketing. Anthracnose exhibit symptoms such as discoloured circular areas in unripe fruit, fruit rot, dark brown lesions and white spots on lesions. The fungus is capable of destroying the entire box of avocado if one avocado is contaminated with it.
The biological control agents have provided excellent control of waterhyacinth in many locations around the world including India (Center, 1994, Coetzee et al. 2011). Biological control of weeds using insects and pathogens have gained considerable importance over last five decades as they are ecologically eco- friendly, host specific and effective means of weed control. Among various biological control agents, several various phytopathogenic fungi have been found to workeffective against the weed (Charudattan, 2001). Various studies on the isolation, identification and pathogenicity of fungi associated with the waterhyacinth in its native range, as well as in several water hyacinthwaterhyacinth infested areas of the world (Freeman et
The government and the farmers have to spend a lot of money as well as energies to solve the problems so that those agricultures that act as the economic sources can still support the daily life of the farmers and the development of the country. For example, the overpopulation of the beetle Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as red palm weevil, has been ravaging the nation’s palm trees and can potentially decimate the palm oil industry due to the removal of the parasitoid mite, Rhynchopolipus
Natural rubber latex is a natural and sustainable industrial material harvested from rubber trees known as Hevea brasiliensis. Natural ruber latex consist of cis-1,4- polyisoprene polymer and present in a spherical shape between 0.1 to 2.0 µm in diameter, covered by a layer of proteins and lipids which separate the hydrophobic rubber hydrocarbon from the aqueous phase (Blackley, 1997; Nawamawat et al., 2011). Natural rubber latex is the material of choice for the fabrication of thin elastic films in many products such as gloves, condoms, catheters, toys, balloons and etc., owing to its high strength, elasticity, comfort in use, good barrier properties and ‘green image’ (Adun & Jitladda, 2013; Amir Hashim & Rosni, 2009; Kevin, 1994). This unique