Act Utilitarianism, being a hedonistic view, promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest good, however Rule Utilitarianism is based on rules of thumb, which may contradict themselves. For example, Rule Utilitarianism makes progress in the sense of being moral saints. This is based on how it takes “into account the effects of the rule or practice itself” (pg. 137). Those whose needs have been met who want to give a portion of their income to the less fortunate promote the greater good.
John Stuart Mill points out the inherent value of individuality, since individuality is by definition the thriving of the human person through the higher pleasures. He argues that a safe society ought to attempt to promote individuality as it is the pre- requisite for creativity and diversity. Therefore Mill concludes that actions themselves don’t matter, rather the person behind the action and the action together are valuable. However on the limits to the authority of
Okeosis drives living beings to strive for self-preservation, focusing on what is most important through constant continuation. Self-preservation is the value that enhances the good of living beings. The actions and choices of living beings are transformed by thought which in turn changes physical ideology. Ethics is what makes humans do what they think is right in order to avoid what might cause harm. Being “selfish or self-centered is the basis for all stoic ethics.” Stoicism originated from a philosophy which evolved and became a part of religious teachings.
Considering that, it is possible to see a connection between Seligman 's authentic happiness theory and Carl Roger 's “self” theory of personality as both explain active attempts to satisfying one 's needs that are consistent with self-concept. According to Roger 's theory, unconditional positive regard is at the base of creating an environment for achieving self-actualization, flourishing and increases in happiness (O 'Brien, 2011, p. 67; Gleitman, Gross & Reisberg, 2011, p. 616). Rogers summarises the unconditional positive regard to be “a warm regard for him as a person of unconditional self worth, of value no matter what his condition, behaviour or his feelings. It means respecting and liking for him as a separate person, a willingness for him to possess his own feelings in his own way. ” (Rogers, 1967, p. 34).
He must avoid foolish arrogance, lying, and boasting (125). I agree with this demand because the courtier has to be an image that motivates others in a way that they will not feel the need to express the same negative emotions. This is especially true for the prince because the actions of the courtier could affect the emotional state of the prince, thus affect his judgement. This is similar to the way in which modern day workers maintain a certain level of professionalism that is not only shown verbally, but physically as well. Although the prince would be honest in speaking about his emotions, his words, which reflect a negative presence around the prince could also be interpreted as disrespect.
It pushes one's success over others. There exist two sorts of utilitarianism: the ACT and the RULE. The Act Utilitarian expresses that an action is awesome just to the degree that it progresses net, complete, expected utility. Then again, the Rule Utilitarian says that an action is awesome just to the degree that it agrees with a fundamental which would propel net, absolute, expected utility, and were it to be all around totally (Posner,
The desire satisfaction theory (DST) describes that the good life is one where desires are satisfied. I agree that the desire satisfaction theory provides for a good life because I believe that the good life can only be determined from within, ultimately suggesting my strong agreement with Taylor’s view of the DST, and its ability to provide long-term satisfaction. While critics attempt to expose the ambiguity of DST, I believe their efforts actually strengthen the value of DST by showing how essential it is to create meaning for ourselves, rather than having it imposed upon us. I found Richard Taylor’s viewpoint on the DST to be the most important/beneficial compared to his critics. Taylor found that the meaning of life is not formed by our surrounding, rather, life’s meaning comes from within the individual.
I thought that this chapter was interesting because I think in a similar way. He believed that for one to be moral, they need to have an appropriate motive for undertaking a task. It cannot be based on selfish reasons and it does not have to appease the public. You do something because it is right. He also states that we often mistake ideas for our own because of conformity.
Though partially unrealistic, but functional, Plato’s and Aristotle’s models of their ideas of society, they both aim at happiness, justice, self-governance, and a virtuous life for each individual as a part of the community. Aristotle and Plato, theorize that virtue must be gained though practice and a form of self-control, and how to achieve happiness. In Aristotle’s, Ethics, Books 1., he studies ethics and asserts that there is an ultimate good which is both complete and self-sufficient. Aristotle believes that this ultimate good is happiness; it means living well. In Book 1, Chapter VII, Aristotle talks about the good being happiness, he proclaims that in accordance of virtue, human good turns out to be activity of the soul.
If somebody using an utilitarian approach thinks an action would bring the most pleasure or happiness to the majority of people then it would be the right thing to do. The advantages of the utilitarian theory is that proponents believe that morality can make life better when the amount of good things is increased and bad