'Although critics have privileged the interpretations of Nervous Conditions that focus and emphasise gender struggles, the class and racial struggles of the novel can be said to be the ones through which the gender struggles are mediated.’ I agree with this assessment. The three themes portrayed in the novel are the pervasiveness of gender inequality, the influence of colonialism and tradition vs. progress. Tambudzai (Tambu) and Nyasha both struggle with the customary gender roles in Shona culture. Ever since she was a child, Tambu felt bitterness towards Nhamo, her brother, when Babamukuru (Tambu’s uncle) moves to pay for his education. Tambu recognizes at a primary age that "the needs and sensibilities of the women in my family were not considered
‘Hard Times’ by Charles Dickens is a social protest novel of nineteenth-century England. Throughout the novel, Dickens makes his voice of protest explicitly clear as he expresses the hardship and inequalities of an industrial, hierarchical society. Dickens portrays how difficult life was through all the characters and their positions in society. Several social and political issues are addressed by Dickens, particularly through education, marriage, divorce and the working conditions of the poor. In Book 1, Chapter 11, Stephen Blackpool reflects these issues through his line “Tis aw a muddle.” It could be argued that this remark by Blackpool refers to the power structures within the novel and how the ‘muddle’ is caused by those with power.
In the contemporary scenario there are many women writers who, through their writings, have been successfully in protecting the existing social inequality. In case of Arundhati Roy, who has her own opinion on society and has successfully made a mark for herself in the world arena. Arundhati Roy’s novel The God of Small Things can be seen as one of the most powerful novels on definite social problems that of the oppression of the downtrodden, also touching upon related problems. The present study aims to highlight the social discriminations which the characters suffer throughout the novel. Light will be thrown on how women protagonists are victims of the prevalent gross gender discrimination.
This leads to deprivation in other areas. Many children are malnourished and the literacy rates are also very low. Destruction in one sphere naturally impacts the other often this process of dispossession and displacement can be painful and violent The God of small things highlights the position of women folk in India. It presents before us the constant struggle of women against their never-ending exploitation, torture and struggle which they undergo because of the male dominated conservative society. Intrinsically this novel is an argument for and against the good and evil in society with special reference to the marginalized.
Their differences have led to the Pashtuns being the majority group and the Hazaras as the minority group. This discrimination has become built into society and effects everyday life. As Pashtuns, Amir and Baba have the opportunities to receive an education and start their own business. While the Hazaras, Hassan and Ali, may only work as servants. This discrimination brought on by social hierarchy causes isolation, violence, and guilt, to those surrounded by it throughout the book.
This thesis consists of Hanif’s portrait of women and their marginalized positions in the society and economic, social and religious pride and prejudices towards women in Pakistani society which is an important theme of his novels. He belongs to those who are proof of that some people can tell the truth more comprehensively and authentically with fiction than facts. In his second novel Our Lady of Alice Bhatti (2012), he discusses the battle and determination of a woman fitting in with minority goes out in a patriarchal society and endures accordingly. In a male dominated society women in Pakistan are in lower position than men , they are always on the periphery, and are subordinated to men and are in debased positions both within the house and outside the house. Alam (2011) shows by her study that women’s unequal positions contrasted with men make them weaker both out in the open and private circles.
This novel concentrates on the issue of untouchability and the protagonist Bakha, the sweeper boy is an untouchable. This novel is a social and powerful criticism of the evil of untouchability that made life more miserable and intolerable to the poor section of Indian society. The novel, on the whole follows the stream of consciousness method of narration where events follow after events without yielding to a plot pattern. The development of the story is replaced by a development of narration. The author himself is the narrator.
It is not only the life journey of Tehmina Durrani. But it is life journey of every woman living in feudal and capitalist society. The status of women in backward societies like Pakistan is quite pathetic. No matter to which social class she belongs; a woman is always treated as subordinate. Despite belonging to an elite class, Tehmina Durrani suffered from the worst possible tyrannies.
Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak explains the subaltern’s emotion in her most famous essay, Can the Subaltern Speak? (1985); the subaltern cannot speak until their conditions may not be historically improved. In literature subaltern is a post-colonial concept which means the term generally used to explain the people who belonging to the lower caste, class, weak sex and economically poor groups in the society. Due to the domination and superiority of upper class communities, the subaltern classes were compelled to do menial jobs like cleaning human excrements, sweeping roads,
Her novels explore the disturbed psyche of the modern Indian women. Her primary focus of attention is the world of woman and the struggle of women in the context of modern Indian society. She has created ripples in the society of male domination by narrating women and their plight, fears, dilemmas, contradiction and ambition. She