However, the innate capacity can be described in the language acquisition generally rather than in specific domain. The cognitive principles are not unique to language. Thus, the understanding of the favorites of the innate component is important in order to access to a full understanding of a linguistic character. The Universal Grammar is generally motivated by learning ability argument: the data of the primary linguistics undetermined the knowledge of the language which implicate the linguistics AlGhamdi
Equilibration Equilibration is a mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next (John W, 2011). Equilibration is a balance between assimilation and accommodation while disequilibrium is a situation where the imbalance between assimilation and accommodation, equilibration can make someone brings together the experience beyond the inner structure. Another notable constructivist is Vygotsky. Vygotsky's work is based on two main ideas. First, intellectual development can be understood only when viewed from a historical and cultural context of the child's experience.
Another relevant learning theory to address in order to carry out this study is cognitivism. By the end of 1950, learning theories started to change and depart from behaviouristic ideas towards an approach that supported its ideas based on models developed from the cognitive sciences (Snelbecker, 1983). As Bower and Hilgard (1981) pointed out, cognitive theories put emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structures, that is to say, cognitive models focus on the conceptualisation of students’ learning processes and how the input acquired is received, organised, stored, and retrieved by their minds (Ertmer & Newby, 2013). In this case, the process of learning is concerned with what learners know and how they acquire new
The CAPS (2011:15) envisages that both the communicative approach and grammar teaching are equally important for learners to acquire language proficiency. The CAPS document put emphasis on the learning of the language rule as well utilisation thereof acquired language. In contrast the communicative language deems learning of language rules as of no
A central research project on learning strategies is the one surveyed in O'Malley and Chamot. According to them, learning strategies are the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn, or retain new information', furthermore, a definition in keeping with the one provided in Wenden: “Learning strategies are mental steps or operations that learners use to learn a new language and to regulate their efforts to do so”. Skehan indicates that to a greater or lesser degree, the strategies and learning styles that someone adopts may partly reflect personal preference rather than innate endowment. Some core strategies will be discussed below: Cognitive Strategies. According to O'Malley and Chamot, cognitive strategies operate directly on incoming information, manipulating it in ways that enhance learning.
Chomsky called this theory as “nativism”. This is a theory that people are born with some knowledge of language. Nativism is referred as tabula rasa or blank slate, and it is in contrast to empiricism. Empiricism doesn 't accept this theory, it claims that all knowledge is based in experience. Nativism enables children to easily learn a native language.
His ideas were adopted later by Hutchinson and Waters (1987), who advocate a learning-centered approach in which learners’ learning needs play a vital role. If the analyst, by means of target situation analysis, tries to find out what learners do with language (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987)learning needs analysis will tell us "what the learner needs to do in order to learn" (ibid: 54). Obviously, they advocate a process-oriented approach, not a product- or goal-oriented one. For them ESP is not "a product but an approach to language teaching which is directed by specific and apparent reasons for learning"
3.2. Contrastive analysis hypothesis The habit formation theory as we saw in section 3.1 had a big influence on a pedagogic area. It was thought that L2 learner would have a trouble in acquiring linguistic items that have different features from their L1 and could acquire relatively easily linguistic items that have similar features to their L1 to the contrary. Then, on the basis of those thought, a new theory on a L2 acquisition and teaching theory appeared. The theory is called “contrastive analysis hypothesis (CAH)”.
3.3 Learning strategies and identification of strategies : The phrase learning strategies in education refers to ‘ the operations employed by learners to aid the acquisition, storage, retrieval , and use of information.’ ( Oxford: 1990; p8). Oxford (1990) expands her definition of learning strategies to consider them as operations in which learners use to make their learning better and more transformable to new situations. Chamot (1987) defines language learning strategies as techniques or alternative actions in which students employ to enable them to manage their learning and recall both linguistic and contextual information. The term language learning strategies is also defined by Wenden and Rubin (1987) as special tasks or behaviors in which students use to aid their learning to new
Reigeluth (1999) stated that instructional material development theory offers explicit guidance on how to better help people learn and develop quality of instruction. According to the author, an instructional theories focus on how to structure material for promoting the education of human being particularly youth. Instructional theory is typically influenced by three general influences in educational thought: the behaviourist, the cognitive and the constructivist school of thought. The behaviourist assumes a learner is essentially passive, responding to environment stimuli. The learner begins to learn with no record and then, behaviour is form through positive or negative feelings and ideas.