This increases the risk of diseases especially cardiovascular diseases. However, the BMI range for elderly individuals are different. Based on a study conducted by Yale in 2001, using the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's U.S. Clinical Guidelines it is found that there is no correlation between elderly individuals who is mildly overweight with increased mortality. Based on the studies, individuals who are overweight has lower mortality rate compared to individuals with normal BMI. It is then concluded that general BMI range differs between adults and elderly individuals.
Sometimes it is reduced (e.g., Sher & Levenson, 1982), sometimes it is increased (e.g., Ewing & McCarty, 1983) and the other times it has no effect on anxiety (e.g., Thyer & Curtis, 1984). Psychological and physiological dependence of alcoholic beverages is ultimately fostered, lacking in ways of adaptive coping. Strongly motivated drinkers in such reliance situations, as a result, drink a heavier dosage more often can be at a higher risk for alcohol addictions. Drinking psychologically distinct based on the different underlying functions they serve (Cooper, Frone, Russell & Mudar, 1995). This displays the presence of psychological factors in
Since the recommended dosage contains 1200mg, there is a need to carry out further clinical trials at this dosage to determine whether an increased dosage has any other benefits or not. As Meoli et al. reports, a dose of 450mg of Valerian caused a significant reduction on sleep latency. Nonetheless, an increased dose of 900mg caused no additional benefits with reports of a significant increase in subjective somnolence.2 Carrying out a study using the 1200mg dose will shade some more light on the possible hangover effect of subjective morning
Before completing this experiment, we hypothesized that each person’s heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure would increase right after the exercise, and then decrease for the next three readings. Because the p-value for heart rate is 0.11, there is an 11% probability that our results are due to chance and not the experiment. Because this reading is above 0.05 or 5% (the alpha value in this experiment), we accept the null hypothesis, meaning that walking stairs does not immediately increase a person’s heart rate. This value is therefore not significant. Because the p-value for systolic blood pressure was 0.02, there is a 2% probability that our results are due to chance.
The ethical issue of “Do Not Resuscitate,” or DNR, is prevalent in society today. Do Not Resuscitate Orders first found their origin in the healthcare system in the 1970s when it was decided that cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR, may not be beneficial for all patients who go into cardiac arrest and could cause more harm than good as CPR can be very rough, sometimes to the point of ribs being broken. (Yuen, Reid, & Fetters, 2011). The number of DNR orders has increased prominently, to the point where they are no longer limited to patients with terminal illnesses or those going into a possibly life-threatening surgery as was the case when DNR first came about. Nancy Crigger and Jeri Sindt (2015) explain in their article, “Respecting patient’s
Patients experience less dementia, or cognition decline, than individuals with untreated brain illness. Depression, for example, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent dementia when untreated. Consider pharmacology augmenting ECT. As we age, medications metabolize differently, interact more, and can cause life threatening side effects. Even medication that a patient has taken safely for years can, one day out of the blue, cause dizziness and falls.
However, the excess data took the focus away from infants and children and spoke about people with the disorder as a whole. It was a little confusing to me because I felt like the results were not that accurate because adults were included in the study. However, there is enough sufficient data to support that children have a higher mortality rate due to cystic fibrosis; it is clearly stated in the results as well as in the data. Further studies can be improved by focusing the study on one specific age group, instead of multiple. The question that remains unanswered in this article is why do children have such a high mortality rate due to cystic fibrosis.
Some might argue that banning smoking in hospitals is not so much a good example as a cruel decision for smokers. According to an article in The New York Times, smoking causes long-term stress levels to rise (O’Connor). In addition, Cambridge University researchers found that hospital workers were not smoking outside wards for pleasure or stress reduction but were just driven by chemical dependence. Thus, stress reduction cannot be a valid reason to tolerate smoking on hospital premises. Of course, everyone in hospitals will be offered nicotine replacement therapy and plenty of advice to minimize withdrawal symptoms and to make them feel convinced enough.
Literature Review: Irritable Bowel Syndrome diagnostics were properly established in the 1980s. Before this time period, doctors were not comprehendible on the subject of this syndrome. IBS is a condition and not a disease as it does not have an evident cause for it but many speculations to why it occurs. Studies have shown that women are more susceptible to IBS than men although some men do experience IBS. (Brown, M.) Symptoms of IBS include: Gastrointestinal Symptoms Abnormal pain or cramping in the abdominal area.
Elder Abuse The mistreatment of the elderly is not something as it has been there since antiquity and despite its severity, the society continues to ignore elder abuse. Various initial trials to understand the clinical spectrum of this phenomenon and to identify an effective intervention strategy have been limited by their unpredictable nature. In the past decade, there have been improvements on the research regarding this subject as a way of provoking interest in the field of nursing, particularly professionals who take care of the older adults and their immediate families. Though in most cases the term elderly abuse has been used to refer to physical mistreatment of the older citizens, financial exploitation as part of psychological mistreatment
Psychoactive drug misuse is not done for the purposes of euphoric or sedative obtainment as seen with the younger population, but due to cognitive deficiencies. While illicit drugs usage is low in amongst this group, it is steadily growing (Wang et al. 2013). There has been in rise in geriatric emergency room visits due to substance misuse (Wang et al. 2013).
Merchants who sell them online position the product as a more affordable Viagra alternative, but herbal Viagra is actually not the same with the original drug. The FDA has previously warned that herbal Viagra has undeclared ingredients such as sildenafil that interact with prescription cardiac drugs and lower blood pressure to dangerous levels. The agency instructed consumers to stop using Reload immediately and throw away the product. While Reload’s package advises users to consult with a doctor if they have any cardiovascular diseases before using the drug, it does not mention sildenafil. Instead, the substances “Gingko Biloba” and “Panax Ginseng” are listed on the package.
This would determine whether primary or secondary preventive interventions would likely be effective in treating condition. Kirkman mentioned type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle interventions or by various classes of medications. In one study mentioned in this article more than 20 % of participants ages 60 and older seemed to have more efficacy from lifestyle intervention than younger participants, but did not appear to benefit from medication. Follow up in 10 years showed the same outcome with ongoing greater impact of the original lifestyle intervention in older participants. This article also discussed the fact that diabetes increases the chance of having other health complications in older adults.
“Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior… (Though) short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults beyond 24 years of age” (“Escitalopram…”). This would have been a great addition to the piece on Jones because it contributes many factors to the authors claim. Through this statement, it acknowledges the fact that antidepressants can contribute to thoughts of suicide, but because Jones was 37 year old, this side effect would have little to no effect on her. This thus helps rule out misconduct on her part and confirmed the possible suspicion that her unknown cause of death could have been at her own