For the purposes on this research essay there will be 3 different concentric zone city models that will be used for discussion. The basic outline of the concentric zone model is the idea that a city is split up into specific zones where specific people live depending on their race, social status or economic status. How factors like industrial areas and residential areas are arranged are basically what a concentric zone model is (City-Building, 2014). Other models such as the Abercrombie plan for greater London (Massey, Allen, Pile, 1999) and a plan of Ebenezer Howard’s social city (Massey, Allen, Pile, 1999), more emphasis is put on residential dwellings being placed far from places of work. This was in the hopes of creating cities that were sustainable and could be areas where inhabitants could live and thrive for years (Massey, Allen, Pile, 1999).
2011) to generate landslide susceptibility map. Eleven parameters selected purposely for this project are; slope angle, altitude, rainfall, aspect, geological unit, erodibility function, landform, river buffer, road buffer, land use/ land cover and recent earthquake magnitude. There are three main parts to the methodology and they are (i) Deriving and generating parameters from the datasets, (ii) ranking, classifying and weighing of the parameters and (iii) generating of Landslide hazard and risk factor map using the weighted sum tool in ArcGIS 10. Slope, aspect, altitude were derived from digital elevation model (DEM) of Bulolo and land use/land cover from the Landsat 5 TM (30m) data sets of year 1992. Proximity analysis (buffer) was performed (Michael and Samanta 2016) to generate zones of vulnerability from the rivers and the roads.
Well-grounded, the book utilises the commonalities and differences illustrated in the comparative studies of British and American theory and practice of urban design and planning. The book envisions to educate the professionals about the common communal spaces as how important they are and how they can be efficiently designed. The author explains the importance of three dimensional principles of urban design to address planning issues to further effectively envisage place-making. The book simply focusses on improving town planning practice and implementation of ideas. Also, the idea of form-based codes is discussed intensely in the chapters of this book.
On the 3D model, the process of making or using it as reference for discussion and planning facilitates the handling of spatial data. A common understanding of the landscape significantly enhances the capacity of individuals to analyze the territory. This makes 3D models excellent tools in dealing with issues and conflicts associated with the territory and the use of its resources. Furthermore, P3DM has been successfully used in preparing land and resource use plans, watershed management plans,
It largely delineated the boundary between lower slopes and those beyond 18% which is considered unbuildable. This means that those areas beyond the urban limit require special controls to discourage development and thereby preserve the environment as well as protect the forests and water sources. It was intended to be institutionalized with clear-cut policies towards its implementation; however, this was not to be as more and more private developments and subdivision have breached through this urban limit. The trans-central highway which had very limited controls was a major catalyst toward this breach towards our forests. Figure 2: Live-Work-Play Clusters in the whole of
In this regard continuous monitoring and mapping of this area is very important. In this study for mapping of avalanches in this area landsat 8 data set has been used to classify the land cover. Object based classification was used in this study and seven classes were obtained. The classification showed that maximum area in this land cover about 6619 square kilometer was occupied by snow because of the high altitude and low temperature
By simply inspecting the topological maps of the subway of both cities, it is not easy to know if one subway is better organized than the other (i.e., subway efficiency). One way to simplify this problem is to use metrics that quantify or analyze the graph. Hence the concept of graphic theoretical analysis. A first aspect to measure could be how easy is to travel between any two stations (e.g. the number of stations on average).
Theories that will be reviewed in this section include; the Central place Theory, the Growth pole theory and aspects of the theory of urban dynamics. 2.4.1 Theory of Spatial Urban dynamics This theory was originally propounded by J. W Forester in 1969; however, it has been expanded by other writers such as Schroeder (1975) and also Alfeld (1975) in terms of spatial point of view. Cities have long been recognized as complex and dynamic entities and urban dynamics here refers to the processes responsible for changing the morphology of urban spaces (Alfeld, 1975). One of the theories of urban dynamics that will be reviewed in this section is the theory of Urban Attractiveness put forward by Alfeld (2000). 126.96.36.199 Theory of Urban
Due to the differences between cities they are encountering different sustainability challenges. To understand these different challenges better, a distinction can be made depending on the stage of economic and social development of the city. In the report ‘Megacity challenges’, three ‘archetypes’ are used to make this distinction; emerging megacities, transitional megacities and mature megacities (Globescan, 2004). The same kind of categorisation is made in the ‘urban environmental transition’ theory (Marcotullio, 2007), this theory describes that as cities become wealthier, their environmental focus changes from so called ‘brown’ to ‘grey’ and finally ‘green’ challenges. Although the cities are divided by their problems instead of city type, the three categories in both theories make the same distinction between cities and can almost be used
The accuracy for DEM produced on the lowland area was helped the authorities to process the flood mapping because the DEM produced showed an elevation data result. There are some aspects which are assessed from the production process to ensure DEM Digital Elevation Models