The state of Nagaland covers an area of about 16,579 sq.kms lying between 25.6 degree and 27.4 degree north of equator and between 93.20 degree and 95.13 degree east. It is bounded on the west by the planes of Assam, on the north by Arunachal Pradesh, on the south by Manipur and on the east the state has an international frontier with Myanmar (Burma). The Nagas have folklore and legends regarding their origin like other tribal inhabitant of the North-East India. Nagaland has a total population of 19, 80,602, comprising of 10, 25,707 males and 9, 54,895 females. On 1st December 1963, Nagaland was formally became the state of Indian and Kohima as its capital (Sajnani, 2001:253).
The anthropological servey of India under the ‘people of India’ project identifies 461 tribal communities in the country. These are counted as 67583800 people that mean 8.08 per cent of the total population as per 1991 census. These tribes spread over almost the entire length and breadth of the
Multicultural lifestyle of people in Kenya cities Kenya has a population of approximately 40 million people residing in the country across various states. Kenya is made up of 42 tribes, with the Big Five being Kikuyu, Luhya, Luo, Kalenjin and Kamba – divided into three linguistic and cultural groups - Bantus, Nilotes and Cushites. Generally, the traditional way of life has Bantus as farmers while different Nilotic tribes are fishermen, farmers and pastoralists. Cushites are on most part nomadic pastoralists. Kenya has a sizeable number of citizens of European and Asian descent, many of whom trace their families to the building of ‘the lunatic express’, Kenya-Uganda railway line in 1890’s and who today are mostly found in business, manufacturing and large scale farming.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area Zamfara state is located in the North-Western part of Nigeria at Latitude 120 N and Longitude 60 E with an altitude of 420m. Zamfara was carved out of the former Sokoto state on the 1st October, 1996. It occupies a land area of about 38,418 Square kilometres. It is bounded in the North by Sokoto state and the Republic of Niger, in the West by Kebbi and Niger States, in the east by Katsina state and Kaduna state in the South. Methodology A total of sixty four (64) Islamic religious leaders were interviewed –Forty four (44) males and twenty (20) females were interviewed using open ended questions and an interview guide.
The district has been divided into 5 Revenue divisions consisting of 63 Revenue mandals.They are Anantapuramu division , Dharmavaram division , Penukonda division ,Kalyanadurgam division and Kadiri division.. Anantapuramu district lies between 13'-40' and 15’-15' Northern Latitude and 76'-50' and 78'-30' Eastern Longitude. Demographic Profile of Ananthapuramu district As per 2011 census the total population of Anantapuramu district is 4,081,148. Among them 2,064,495 constituting 50.59 per cent are males and 2,016,653 constituting 49.41 per cent are females. Nearly 71.93 per cent of population is living in rural areas of the district. Among the rural population nearly 50.73 per cent are males and the remaining 49.27 per cent are females.
2.3 Malaysian dialects Malaysia is a multiracial country that uses Malay language as its official language. Malaysia is divided into six regions, which are Northern Region, Central Region, East Coast, Sabah, and Sarawak (ThingsAsian, n.d.). Malaysia is comprised of fourteen states, hence the Malay language is spoken in various dialects. The fourteen states are Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, Perak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor, Pahang, Terengganu, Kelantan, Sabah, and Sarawak. These states are divided accordingly to the six regions mentioned above.
Malaysia is a multiracial country that uses Malay language as its official language. Malaysia is divided into six regions, which are Northern Region, Central Region, East Coast, Sabah, and Sarawak (ThingsAsian, n.d.). Malaysia is comprised of fourteen states, hence the Malay language is spoken in various dialects. The fourteen states are Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, Perak, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor, Pahang, Terengganu, Kelantan, Sabah, and Sarawak. These states are divided accordingly to the six regions mentioned above.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordering Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand. One-third of Myanmar's total area of 1 930 km (1,200 miles) forms an uninterrupted coastline along the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The 2014 census of the country revealed a much smaller population than expected, with 51 million people registered. Myanmar has an area of 676,578 square kilometers (261,227 square miles). Its capital is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).
The definition of Malay, it can divide into three types that are based on ethnics or tribes, nation and family. Malay ethnics or tribes from the definition in the context of Indonesia are a native resident of Indonesia. Malay tribe is third largest population after Java tribe and Sunda tribe. Malay tribe more dominates the area of sea shore. There are living mostly in the area of east coast of Sumatera, Islands of Riau-Lingga and Western Kalimantan.
The Tibeto-Burman family of languages consists of Burmese, and also includes many of the languages spoken by ethnic minorities in Thailand, Laos, Burma and Southern China. The Austronesian family of languages consists of Indonesian, Malay and Tagalog. These are spoken throughout the Indonesian archipelago, the Philippines and many of the Pacific islands. The Tai group of languages has Thai as their most important representative, and includes Lao and Shan, a language spoken in eastern Burma. The Austro-Asiatic or Mon-Khmer family of languages consist of Vietnamese and Khmer, and many other minority languages spoken in isolated pockets across the whole of mainland SEA.