Question #1a: Provide a thorough description of the contents of ocean water. The contents of ocean water is that it is very salty. The salt in the ocean water comes from many different types of rocks on land. How the salt from rocks is that when rain falls down on land the rain will slowly erode the rock. How that is happening is the acid in the rain erodes the rock but it is not dangerous acid to us humans.
The plastic settlement cracks occur due to the settlement of heavy aggregates at bottom and water at top surface or due to concrete’s tendency to reduce its volume and a restraint in the reduction by either reinforcement or duct will cause adjacent concrete to settle and form crack over the restraining area. In exposed situations, this may increase the risk of corrosion of the reinforcement and pose a threat to durability of the structure. Cracks may develop further due to subsequent drying shrinkage, leading to possible cracking through the full depth of the concrete
Calcarenite is a sedimentary rock formed of calcareous particles that have been deposited mechanically from a solution. The particles which consist of fossil materials, pebbles and granules of carbonate rock and Oolites are transported and sorted by flowing water. When it is formed entirely of shell debris the rock is called coquina. (Robert 1768) 1.1. Composition of calcarenite Calcarenite is a type of limestone composed mainly of above 50% of detrital sand of size 0.0625 to 3mm in diameter in carbonate grains which are extremely small.
These soils are dry soils, as they get little amount of precipitation, thus they do not have high amounts of organic matter. Soil formation is restricted near to the surface as any water the desert does receive, does not move through the soil. Soils in this biome, usually have little or no foliage cover, mostly due to the fact that most of it is destroyed by the strong sun’s rays. Desert soils can differ in depth, they can be deep, shallow, salty or be covered with a desert pavement, or have a cement-like horizon close to the surface. They have a B horizon, which often contains calcium carbonate, gypsum and salts.
The formation is found in the Cliff House Sandstone group in areas that are not covered or protected. Similar to the formation of the alcoves water seeping into cracks and freezing plays an integral part in the forming of this feature. The water in the cracks also serves the additional purpose of dissolving the calcium within the rocks which weakens them, and leaves behind the signature turtle shell quality. Ripple Marks, while by no means exclusive to the Mesa Verde, are very beautiful land formations that provide a clear indication as to how they were made (NPS 2005). The formations look just like ripples in water and it is indeed water ripples that help form them.
Conversely, concrete is one of the most powerful tools for proper flood control, by means of damming, diversion, and deflection of flood waters, mud flows, and the Concrete dust released by building demolition and natural disasters can be a major source of dangerous air pollution. The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted additives, can cause health concerns due to toxicity and radioactivity.
Further, the low conductivity of fresh rainwater is validated by frequent rainfalls combined with low temperature during the sampling period (wet season). This is probably due to low levels of particulates such as smoke, dust, and soot suspended in the atmosphere which dissolved in the rain droplets as it falls from the sky. This may also be related to the presence of particles of clay, organic components and other microscopic substances (Ovrawah and Hymone, 2001). In addition, the low turbidity in the rainwater samples can be associated with frequent rainfalls during the sampling period. Appiah (2008) studied the physicochemical analysis of roof run-off established that turbidity is affected by dry spell, and the longer the span of continuous rainfalls, the lower is the
In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics [12-14]. However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening.
2002; Bell, 1996; Mathew and Rao, 1997). The long-term reactions are the pozzolanic reactions. The addition of lime to soil produces a highly alkaline environment, due to the OH- anions from the hydration of lime, which gives rise to a slow solution of silica and alumina from clay particles (Kinuthia et al.1999; Mathew and Rao, 1997). The cementation process develops from the reaction between calcium present in lime and dissolved silica and alumina from soil, forming calcium-silica-hydrates (CSH), calcium alumino-hydrates (CAH), and calcium-alumino-silica-hydrates (CASH) (Nalbantoğlu and Tuncer,
Workers exposer should be kept to a minimum in these manufacturing facilities. Because sulfuric acid is a strong corrosive substance with very limited exposer limits. Contact with physical liquid will cause immediate skin irritation. Fumes are caustic and cause damage to lungs and other internal organs. Some symptoms for direct contact are burns, trouble breathing, vomiting blood, fever, and low blood pressure.