Safety Management Literature Review

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2. Literature Review

Introduction
Doyle (2013) describes the hospital working environment as complex and demanding with the ability to pose significant risks to staff safety. He goes on to say that the impact of poor occupational health and safety management does not only affect staff, but may also impact the patients they are treating. The Bureau of Labour Statistics (2011) published that the likelihood of injury or illness resulting in days away from work is higher in U.S based hospitals than in the construction and manufacturing industry, although these two industries have been traditionally thought to be relatively hazardous. With this in mind, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (2013) contends that implementing safety
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Evaluating Safety Management in hospitals
5. Best practices and examples

The Purpose of Occupational Safety and Health Legislation
The Ministry of Labour and Small and Micro Enterprise Division (MOLSMED) (n.d.) of Trinidad and Tobago describes the Occupational Safety and Health Act 3, 2004 as amended in 2006 as the legislation which provides a revised and extended legal guideline concerning the safety, health and welfare of persons at work. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (2004) caters to most workers with the exception of domestic workers and covers all facets of work undertaken in an industrial establishment which includes shops, factories, offices, places of work or other premises with the exclusion of residential premises.
The Ontario Ministry of Labour (2013) holds the view that Occupational Safety and Health aims to safeguard workers from health and safety hazards which they may encounter in their work environment. This ministry further explains that the pursuit of the fulfilment of this purpose is outlined in the Occupational Safety and Health legislation by:
• the establishment of duties for all workplace parties
• the definition of the right of all employees regarding issues of health and safety
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These goals include both near-term and “stretch” objectives. For example, one of the hospital’s “stretch” goals is zero needlesticks. Saint Thomas Midtown Hospital embraces continual improvement in many ways, including safety. The chief operating officer recognizes that healthcare requires continual innovation and “doing more with less,” and the chief financial officer oversees a series of lean initiatives to minimize waste and optimize processes. Applying lean principles to safety, Saint Thomas Midtown discovered case carts being returned with sharps and heavy boxes stored on high shelves in the hospital’s distribution center. Improvements included new procedures and reconfigured

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