This week we went to the Conodoguinet Creek. While we were at the creek we did many different things. One of the experiments we did was the Critter Count which was my favorite. Another experiment we did was the Eutrophication Tests. The last Experiment we did was the bobber test. We were gonna do another experiment, the Acidity Test but we didn't get to. We do have the results from the Acidity test from another time.
In this lab we were trying to figure out if Salt Creek and Barker Lake had the correct chemical balances to sustain catfish for the years coming. In order to find this out, we tested the water using a Hach Water Testing Kit. Inside were dissolved oxygen reagent powder pillows 1, 2 and 3 which we added and mixed into our sample water to prepare it for testing. Then we added droplets of Sodium Thiosulphate Solution into the prepared water too see how much dissolved oxygen parts per million were in the water. Our independent variable in this experiment was the 5 different testing sites that we went to for water samples. Our dependant variable in this experiment was the dissolved oxygen parts per million in each sample. We recorded this data on the white board back in our classroom, writing down the specific parts per million that we found in the water. The variables that were the same for all
If the parent alleles do not rearrange until the second division of meiosis, it is called second division segregation of alleles. Gene mapping is the relationship between the frequency of second division segregation and distance (map units) between the genes involved. Recombinant ascospores have chromosomes that were altered by the crossover in metaphase of meiosis. They phenotypically do not represent the parental chromosomes. When spores resemble the parental chromosomes, they are called non-recombinants and they result from being unaffected by the crossover. Tetrad analysis can be used to determine the distance between two genes. When there are tetratypes in the data, one must use this equation (1/2T+NPD)/(Total Tetrads) x100 to find map distance. If there is no tetratypes in the data, then one must use map units=(recombinant spores)/(Total spores(recomb+non-recomb)) x100. These equations will specify the genetic location of genes on a chromosome and their distances apart from one another. The null hypothesis of this experiment is that the ascospores color gene assorts independently and that the phenotype of Grey and Tan are unlinked. The alternative hypothesis is that the Grey and Tan color genes are linked. (Glase,
In this experiment the researchers were investigating the limited range of the crayfish species Orconectes saxatilis in the upper part of the Kiamichi River. The dispersal of the crayfish species O. saxatilis and two sympatric crayfish species throughout the upper part of the Kiamichi River were examined. The type of habitat that the crayfish favor for use was also examined along with their historical characteristics. Crayfish species with small habitats are in major need of conservation but little information is known about species-specific habitats. The question that the researchers were asking in this experiment was what are the primary factors that limit the distribution of the species O. saxatilis in the Kiamichi River.
The colored dots were used as a representation of the different phenotypes of the organism Dottus Variengatus. The starting population in the experiment contained 100 organisms of Dottus Variengatus. The results of both parts of the experiment rejected the null hypothesis tested. The Dottus variegatus individuals experienced negative selection effects by predators based on their bright and distinctive phenotypes that made them stand out among the rest of the population. Individuals with lighter colors represented the adapted individuals which experienced positive selection pressure. These individuals were benefited by predation because they survived and could continue to pass their alleles and contribute to the gene pool of the future population. The Chi square gave a statistical analysis comparison between the results of predation occurring because of selective pressure or predation occurring by chance alone. The result of the Chi square analysis showed a low probability of predation due to chance, showing again that the phenotypes of organisms affect their predation possibilities. Majority of the data proved that some organisms
5.What is the expression for the net force on the PAScar? Answer the same question for the hanging mass. Finally, what is the net force on the system as a whole (PAScar plus the hanging mass), and which of the three net forces that you found equals the tension in the string connecting the PAScar to the hanging mass? (2 points)
Population genetics is the study of distribution and change in allele frequency in a population (). This makes population genetics important to the study of evolutionary biology as it examines adaptations, speciation, and the population structure of a population under study (). Two important processes of population genetics that will be examined in this experiment are natural selection and genetic drift, both that are important to evolution (). For Natural Selection to occur there must be some level of variation among the population that is heritable.
We performed three tests on our compound to definitively identify it. First we combined 5 g of our unknown compound with 10 mL of distilled water and measured the pH change in the water to test its solubility. Then, to try to identify the cation present in our compound and narrow down the possibilities, we held a sample over a flame and watched for color change. We performed an acid test where we applied a few drops of HCl and watched for a bubbling reaction, to test for the presence of carbonate.
In terms of evolutionary genetics, the two Western Flycatcher populations are two species. If the genetic aspects of the two populations show significant differences, then it is reasonable to make inference about their divergence. Johnson and Marten (1988) illustrated the differentiation of allopatric populations by examining 41 genetic loci in 11 breeding populations through electrophoresis. By examining the allelic frequency in coastal and interior populations, some alleles appearing in one population with high frequencies do not exist or have low
Does the amount of blubber an Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, has depend on the environment it inhabits?
Title: Effects of Congregated Salmon on water quality below versus the water above the weir
The purpose of this lab was to determine the overall health of the aquatic community at Lake Wheeler. Various water and sediments samples were taken to be tested and observed in a number ways to reach a conclusion about this lake’s condition and fitness. The dissolved oxygen content, pH level, water temperature, and water clarity were also tested with the use of several different tools, ranging from a Secchi disk to pH strips and more complex contraptions like the Schindler-Patalas trap. The overall health of the lake that was tested as well as coliform samples that were taken from the surface.
Fish have been used in scientific research for a long time, less so than other animals such as rats and mice but at an increasing rate since the 1960s. Fishes are used as experimental models in biological sciences 1 and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is one of the most intensively studied fishes in a broad variety of research areas. Even though they are large in size relative to some other model fish species, and have fairly long reproductive cycles (2-3 years), they are easy to culture. Trout are more amenable to surgical manipulation than smaller species, and their size allows large amounts of specific tissues and cell types to be isolated for biochemical, immunological, and molecular biological analysis. Rainbow trout reproduction is
Sample 100 ng/µl DNA was extracted from the cricket Acheta domesticus using the phenol-chloroform methods described in Davies et al., 2012 , dissolved in Tris-HCl-EDTA (TE) buffer and kept frozen at -20˚C. In initial tests, portions of the extracted DNA were suspended at the same DNA concentration as the control sample in solutions of magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, lithium chloride, and nickel chloride. Each salt was mixed in three different concentrations, including 100 mM, 10 mM, and 0.1 mM. Then DNA in each salt concentration was incubated at different temperatures: 25˚C, 42˚C, 65˚C, and 95˚C, for fifteen minutes. The products were then loaded onto an agarose gel and allowed to run in
When discussing distinct species what most commonly comes up is the factor of reproduction, more accurately reproductive isolation. They are able to interbreed with individuals in their species, but produced infertile offspring when mating with other closely related groups (Cawley, 1). However, there are cases where different