Leukotrienes (LT) are fatty acid-derived mediators containing a conjugated triene structure. They are formed when arachidonic acid (Chapter 26) is liberated from the cell membrane of cells, as a result of cell activation by allergic or other noxious stimuli. 5-Lipoxygenase is the enzyme required for the synthesis of LTA4, which is an unstable epoxide precursor of the two subgroups of biologically important leukotrienes. LTB4 is a dihydroxy 20-carbon-atom fatty acid which is a potent pro-inflammatory chemo-attractant. The other group is the cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4).
Designing a Therapeutic Dosing Regimen for a Novel Potential Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Allopregnanolone is a metabolite of progesterone and a naturally occurring steroid hormone, which acts as a positive allosteric modulator on the GABAA receptor, producing anaesthetic, anxiolytic and sedative effects. The notable exception to this appears to be in the brains of adolescents, where it acts as a GABAA antagonist, causing mood swings. (National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.) It is found to be secreted in the urine of pregnant women (National Center for Biotechnology Information, n.d.), and levels have been found to naturally fluctuate during pregnancy, the menstrual cycle (Luisi S, 2000), and stress (Girdler SS, 2001). The chemical properties of allopregnanolone make it easy for the molecules to pass from the
Endogenous opioids or opioid agonists (Benzodiazepines, Methadone, and Butorphanol Tartarate) enhance feeding, whereas nonspecific opioid antagonists (naloxone, naltrexone) suppress feeding (Levine et al., 1985). Naltrexone reduces the insulin response to glucose load, helps rectify metabolic imbalance and increases insulin clearance. Cholecystokinin is a neurotransmitter and also acts as an opiate antagonist. It is involved in digestive processes and the experience of satiety. Cholecystokinins obstruct the desire for food and act as a hunger suppressant.
Loperamide is a potent Mu-opioid receptor agonist [13, 15] that acts on the myenteric plexus of the gut wall. It inhibits acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus and inhibits the peristalsis. It also increases the tone of anal sphincter. Loperamide also inhibits the secretions directly by interacting with calmodulin, this may be responsible for the anti diarrheal action.  Activating the Mu receptor prolongs the orocecal and colonic transit times by disrupting the gut’s electrical activity, increasing gut capacity, and delaying the passage of fluids through the small intestine, it has no direct effect on absorption  and when used to manage patients with ileostomy diarrhea investigators have obtained significant reduction in faecal loss, improvement in electrolytes and fluid balance have with loperamide therapy.
PHARMACOLOGY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE Dexmedetomidine HCl, an imidazole compound is the pharmacologically active s-enantiomer of medetomidine, a veterinary anaesthetic agent. It is described chemically as (+)-4-(s)[2 3 –(dimethylphenyl) ethyl]-11 H-imidazole monohyrochloride. Its empirical formula is C13H16N2HCl and its molecular weight is 236.7(57). Figure 4 : Structure of Dexmedetomidine PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES A white or almost white powder that is freely soluble in water with Pka of 7.1.Partition coefficient in octanol: water at pH 7.4 is 2.89. Preservative free dexmedetomidine is available in 1ml and 2 ml ampoule as Dexmedetomidine Hydrochloride for intravenous use (Alphadex, Fusion health care 100 μg/ml).
Each antianginal drugs can be classified into one or more drug classes. These drugs are used to manage angina by improving perfusion of the heart muscle and they also reduce the metabolic demands of the heart muscle. The two main groups of antianginal drugs are organic nitrates and calcium antagonists because they are vasodilators and improve heart muscle perfusion and reduce the metabolic demands of the heart muscle. There are three classes of drugs to treat angina and may be used to treat other conditions as determined by a
In your heart when it experiences extraneous circumstances it can increase the heart rate or force a contraction to cope with the increases in physical activity. In the lungs, one can experience dilated bronchioles by circulating the adrenaline that is produced. In the kidney you will see an increase in renin secretion, the gut will also decrease peristalsis and tone while also contracting the sphincter. The salivary glands will thicken up and produce a viscous secretion. One other thing that the sympathetic nervous system will slow down and relax the bladder when it is experiencing pressure or concentrate the sphincter to help control the
This would result in a decrease in muscle contraction, which would subsequently lower ventilation. As a result, lesser CO2 is exhaled. The vascular effects include coronary vasodilation and vasoconstriction in skeletal muscle and the splanchnic area (O'Regan & Majcherczyk,
Controlling Bleeding If someone is bleeding; apply pressure to the wound, ideally with sterile cloth, but a towel or T-shirt will work just fine if you can’t find anything else. Make sure that you elevate the wound above the heart. Mild bleeding usually stops on its own, but If the bleeding has not slowed down or stopped, continue pressuring the wound while getting help.. 6. Heart Attacks and Strokes To relief a regular pain, Aspirin is prescribed by the doctors to help treat mini heart attacks and strokes. Aspirin properties includes anti inflammatory and a blood thinner that helps blood get through large clots that leads to stroke and heart attacks.
. DRUG PROFILE 2.1 IBUPROFEN Ibuprofen chemically known as 2-[4-(2-methyl propyl) propanoic acid. It is a propanoic acid derivative classified under non steroidal anti inflammatory agent (NSAID) with analagesic and antipyretic properties.The empirical formula of ibuprofen is C13H18O2 its molecular weight is 206.29. It is indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteo arthritis for relief of mild to moderate pain and also indicated for the treatment of dysmenorrheal. MECHANISM OF ACTION The exact mechanism of action of ibuprofen is unknown.
Verapamil is useful in treating and preventing chest pains which were caused from contraction of the coronary arteries that reduces the flow of blood to the heart. Relaxing muscles in the arteries in the body lowers blood pressure and reduces the pressure against the heart. As a result, the heart is allowed to work less and requires less oxygen-carrying blood. Verapamil also decreases the conduction of electrical impulses through the heart that control the coordination of contraction (which creates the spasms) (Verapamil, Calan, Verelan, Isoptin: Drug Facts, Side Effects and Dosing. (n.d.).
Labetalol and Carvedilol block beta and alpha-1 receptors. By blocking alpha receptors, this adds to the blood vessel dilating effects. Some of the beta blockers have intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which means they mimic the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine and cause an increase in blood pressure and heart rate. (Ogbru & Marks,
Acute is a condition in which carbon dioxide builds up very fast, before the kidneys can return the body to homeostasis. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include: Sleepiness, easy fatigue, confusion, and shortness of breath and lethargy. Treatment is aimed to the underlying disease, oxygen if the blood level is low, treatment to stop smoking, Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (called CPAP) or a breathing machine and some Bronchodilator drugs to reserve airway obstruction. Compensation refers to the body 's natural mechanisms of counteracting a primary acid-base disorder in an attempt to maintain homeostasis. In Respiratory Acidosis, the elevation in PCO2 result from a reduction in alveolar ventilation.