Introduction : The genus Salmonella belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae (bacteria living in the intestine) and consists of two species, Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori (CCFH June 2007). Over 2500 Salmonella enterica serotypes are recognized, and all are regarded as capable of producing disease in humans. Worldwide, salmonellosis is a leading cause of enteric infectious disease attributable to foods. Salmonella cause serious systemic or enteric diseases in animals and humans, Illnesses caused by the majority of Salmonella serotypes range from mild to severe gastroenteritis, and in some people, bacteraemia, septicaemia and a variety of associated longer-term conditions. A wide range of foods has been implicated in food-borne
5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen are reported as the early precursors in the haem biosynthetic pathway . Using ALA in both aerobic and anaerobic organism after their biosynthesis in a specific way depending on the type of organism involve, the formation of the porphyrin and haem from the precursor ALA species are commonly proceeded with same sequence of reactions in all these species .The condensation of two molecules of ALA by the enzyme dehydratase gives first ring structure, porphobilinogen (PBG) . The condensation of four PBG molecules in the presence of two enzymes, PGB deaminase and pophyrinogen cosynthetase results in formation of a four ring structure, uroporphyrinogen with side chain mainly comprising of acetic and propanoic acid. The decarboxylation of the acetic acid side chain of uroporphyrinogen to methyl group by enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase results in the formation of coproporphyrinogen. The oxidative decarboxylation of the propanoic side chain to vinyl group in the presence of enzyme coproporphyrinogen oxidase gives rise to Protoporphrinogen IX .
Arginine Dihydrolase test : Moeller's decarboxylase basal broth with 1% Arginine along with an aminoacid free control were inoculated with the test strain.Both the tubes were overlaid with sterile liquid paraffin and incubated at 37 C overnight.The colour of the indicator reverting back to original (purple) indicating arginine hydrolysis was considered as positive provided the control tube remains yellow indicating fermentation. Quality control :Positive - Enterobacter
LB agar was divided into 4 quadrants. First quadrant, which was labeled with C, shows the microbial colonies found on coke. After culturing ,only 1 colony was found on coke. İt has pale yellow colour, circular shape and medium size. 1 colony was seen on money too.
And , it was washed .About 120g of dried leaves were obtained from fresh leaves weighing about 24g .And, they were powdered and extracted with 100 % Ethanol for about 48 hours. After extraction, the Ethanol extract was filtered by mesh cloth. . 2-Preparation of nutrient agar plates: Cup –plate method was used for screening the antibacterial activity of pure and dried 100 % ethanol extract .A commercial sample of amoxicillin was used as a standard and nutrient agar was used as culture medium. The natural agar consist of Yeast Extract, Tryptone , Lactose , Manniiol, Sodium Chloride , Dip otassium Hydrogen Phosphate ,Gelatin and Agar .Then , in a conical flask 14g of nutrient agar was mixed into 500 ml of distilled water and , The mixture was stirred and dissolved until most of the agar dissolve.
TCBS agar was prepared for about 100ml and poured into petri plates, after solidifying, pure colonies of bioluminescent bacteria was streaked. The petri plates were observed after 24 hours. If there is presence of yellow color colonies, it is concluded as Vibrio spp. 3.12.4 Species Verification by Sub-culturing at 4°C using SWC agar media The pure culture of Bioluminescent bacteria was streaked on the agar media and refrigerate at 4°C. The Photobacterium phosphoreum will exhibit slow growth at
Materials All the chemicals used for synthesis purposes were of AR grade, purchased from Sigma Aldrich chemicals, and for spectral analysis spectral grade solvents were used. Double distilled water was used for preparing solutions. The test strains, Escherichia coli (E. coli) gram-negative, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were purchased from IMTECH, Chandigarh, India. Yeast extract, tryptophan and bacterial-grade agar–agar were purchased from Hi-media Laboratories, Mumbai, India. Synthesis of 2-[(4-methoxy-phenyl)iminomethyl]-4-nitrophenol (SB) The Schiff-base, 2-[(4-methoxy-phenyl)iminomethyl]-4-nitrophenol, (C14H12N2O4) was synthesized by using p-Anisidine in methanol
Another expected result was the presence of the red streak in the red agar for the third strain suggesting no biofilm was present. The second strain formed a dark red streak, however, which was unexpected as a dark streak indicating a biofilm was expected from the initial experiment. However, the dark red streak indicated some biofilm was present, although not as much as in the first
After a series of purifications, the alginate is dried powdered. The color of extracted alginate will depend on the used algal raw material as well as the age of the algae .However, the pigmentation of alginate can be controlled by bleaching (Mchugh et al., 2001). 1.1.2. Bacterial alginate Several bacteria can produce alginate such as Pseudomonas and Azotobacter species (Rehm, 2002). Monomer blocks structure was found to be similar in alginate extracted by marine algae and produced from Azotobacter vinelandii, while the alginate synthesized by Pseudomonas is different in that it doesn't have G-blocks (Skjak et al., 1986).
Aspergillus, Crassa, Neurospora are some of the fungi of this class. In these fungi the spores are produced in a club-shaped spore case called basidium. The club fungi produce large number of spores. The basidia containing the spores are lined at the gills under the cap in some fungi like mushrooms. An average sized mushroom can produce about 16 billion spores.