OF test is used to differentiate those organisms that utilize carbohydrates aerobically (Oxidation) such as P. aeruginosa, from those that utilize carbohydrates anaerobically (Fermentation) such as members of the Enterobacteriaaceae. The OF medium contains peptone, test carbohydrate and bromothymol blue as indicator. When carbohydrate is utilized, acids are formed which changes the colour of the medium from green to yellow
The first step (1) of the hydrolysis, involves the addition of NaOH to methyl salicylate. The reaction is then put under reflux. This produces the sodium salt of salicylic acid known as sodium salicylate. The end products of saponification are alcohol and carboxylic acid. Therefore, in the second step (2), the sodium salicylate collected is then acidified using sulphuric acid to convert the organic salt into the protonated carboxylic acid, salicylic acid.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
Determination of the Acid Neutralizing Capacity of an Antacid Tablet The stomach has an acidic interior generated by dilute HCl, “stomach acid”, which insures proper digestion. When the acidity of the stomach becomes high enough to cause discomfort, brought about by the ingestion of certain types of food, an antacid preparation can be taken to neutralize the excess stomach acid. The active ingredient in every antacid is a base, the most common being metal hydroxides, metal carbonates or a mixture of the two. Table 1 lists the active ingredients in several commercial brands of antacid. Table 1.
Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. When triglycerides in fat/oil react with aqueous NaOH or KOH, they are converted into soap and glycerol. This is called alkaline hydrolysis of esters. Since this reaction leads to the formation of soap, it is called saponification. Surfactant – Compounds that lower the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid.
The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >N-C=O which as rearrangement gives carbonial . This carbonial abstract proton from water to give NAG. The established over degradation of NAG to 4-MBA was also obseved in alkali condition. Degradation pathway of AN is shown in Fig.3. The isolated degradation products are subjected to Mass studies to obtain their accurate mass fragment patterns.
The parietal cell produces hydrochloric acid, it is very concentrated. The g-cells produce gastrin, a hormone that smooths the production of hydrochloric acid that is produced by the parietal cells. The stomach is protected by the epithelial cells, which produces and secretes bicarbonate rich solution that coats the mucosa. What is bicarbonate? It is an alkaline, a base and neutralizes the acid secreted by the parietal cells.
For example, the malate can be transported into the mitochondria via the malate shuttle and re-enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Then again, cytosolic malate can be oxidized to oxaloacetate, which can be converted to aspartate or glucose [Jones et.al 2000]. Step 5: Hydrolysis of arginine to form ornithine and urea Enzyme Arginase is required in this step. The arginine is hydrolyzed to generate the urea and to change the ornithine. It occurs in liver cells cytosol.
Branchiostoma (amphioxus) has about 60 pairs of aortic arches, but Petromyzon has only 7 pairs while Myxine has 6 pairs of aortic arches. Cyclostomes which are a primitive vertebrate include 6-15 arches on their ventral and dorsal carotid arteries. They primarily have 6 pairs of arches. During later development the first arch either lost or degenerate. AORTIC ARCHES IN FISH: In fish the numbers of aortic arches are varying in different categories of fish.
GAIRANOD, Princess Jeanne R. BS Biology, 2011 – 37638 Synthesis Paper: Shigella flexneri The genus Shigella includes four different species – Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella flexneri. Several serotypes occur for each species based on O - antigen variations (Jennison & Verma, 2004; Morona, et al., 1995). Members of the genus are gram-negative, highly infective facultative intracellular pathogens, recognized as etiological agents of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) (Kotloff, et al., 1999; Sansonetti, 2001). Shigella ranks third among the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States, following Salmonella, and Campylobacter, respectively (Gupta, et al., 2004). Taxonomy Shigella flexneri
Mannitol high salt testing is done in order to determine if the bacteria is salt tolerant and can ferment mannitol. Catalase activity test establishes whether the bacterium produces the enzyme catalase. The eosin methylene blue test or EMB, inhibits the growth of gram positive bacteria and tests whether or not gram negative bacteria can ferment lactose. Lactose fermentation testing is done to see if the bacterium is capable of fermenting sugar by testing for acid and gas production. These are the possible tests that are needed in order to identify unknown
Next test, inoculation of a urea broth and is used to determine if unknown #398 contains urease that hydrolyzes urea. Last test, inoculation of phenylalanine agar is used to determine if phenylalanine deaminase oxidizes phenylalanine into phenylpyruvic acid and ammonia. Sixth test, is a Multiple Test Media used to determine the physiological characteristics of unknown #398. First test, Inoculation of Kligler 's Iron agar was used to determine the production of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine and fermentation of glucose and lactose. Last test, inoculation of litmus milk is used to determine the fermentation of lactose, casein, lactalbumin, and
The fatty acids in these are then made into fatty alcohols then undergo another process to sulfonate them into crystalline salt. Sodium Laureth Sulphate is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate that has been through a process called ethoxylation. Honestly (October 2015). Stacey Rosenberg (02/11/2014) Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl is part of the peroxide family, it is a chemical that has an anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect but can cause stinging, itching, burning, dehydration and peeling of the skin. It is commonly used for hair bleaching, teeth whitening and acne treatment.