Cholera Cholera is an infection of the intestines by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The infection that can cause excessive passing of watery stools (diarrhea), vomiting, and other symptoms, often leading . Cholera can lead to severe dehydration. Dehydration is when you lose more fluids from your body than you take in. This can be life-threatening.
Pyelonephritis can be defined as an acute sudden, and severe bacterial infection (an infection caused by the abundant growth of bacteria) of the kidney’s (organs that play a role in regulating fluid balance, and also filter out waste in the blood through the urine). Although this is an acute (experiences at a severe or dangerous degree) disease (a disorder of a structure or function in the human body) it can be very harmful to the body. Just the acute form of pyelonephritis can start in the lower urinary tract (where the urine is produced and discharged out of the body), such as in the bladder (where urine is collected to be excreted) and end up traveling to the kidney’s, causing the kidneys to swell (to become inflamed) and can actually cause renal scarring (thick, irregular scars that are a characteristic of pyelonephritis) if not treated properly.
Pathogenic bacteria may also emit toxins that damage the body. Common pathogenic bacteria and the types of bacterial diseases they cause include: Salmonella and Escherichia coli cause poisoning food . Staphylococcus aureus a different infections in the body canhappened, for example: boils, wound infections, abscesses, toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning and pneumonia.
Tetanus Muscular System Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a serious bacterial infection called Clostridium tetani, that causes serious painful muscle spasms and can lead to death. Clostridium tetani spores are able to for long periods outside of the body. These spores found mainly in animal feces and contaminated soil, but they can survive anywhere. The bacteria enters the body through puncture wounds. Tetanus can enter the body by; animal bites, skin burns, body piercing and tattoos done with unsterile tools, injection of drugs with contaminated needles, abrasion and laceration, and even circumcision.
It can be caused by a number of factors such as : Gastroenteritis - this is typically acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by faeces or directly from another infected person. This causes infectious diarrhoea and the infectious agents can be bacteria, viruses or parasites. Common causative bacterial agents are Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae and Clostridium difficile. Food allergies or food intolerance such as lactose intolerance. An adverse reaction to medication such as penicillin, antacids and laxatives.
This fluid then flows into the loop of Henle and to the collecting ducts. Substances are removed through diffusion, active transport, and osmosis. The filtered substances go into the renal veins and back into the circulatory system. Third Step: Tubular Secretion. This process helps to eliminate toxins from the body.
The Bubonic Plague once destroyed 60% of a population once. The Bubonic Plague, or Yertis Pestis bacterium, affects the Immune System, and causes lymph nodes to swell. The Immune System is responsible for the body’s immunity to pathogens. It causes much malfunction in the body, leading up to death if untreated. The Immune System, which the cell attacks, is responsible for warding off enemies from the body.
There’s evidence that this virus existed all the way back to Egyptian times when a mummified child showed a disfigured and shortened lower limb. This virus that attacks the nerves of the brain and spinal cord and may result in paralysis of muscles, usually asymmetrically, with lower limb involvement. Polio is spread through person-to-person contact, typically fecal-oral transmission. When a child is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine. It is then shed into the environment through the feces where it can spread rapidly through a community, especially in situations where poor hygiene and sanitation are lacking.
Contamination with pathogenic bacteria from the human/animal reservoir can occur when the landing place is unhygienic or when the fish are washed with contaminated water. Upon the processing of fish, its exposure to water is a critical part as pathogens may be present in the water used which can cause contamination and spoilage (Shoolongela & Schneider, 2012). Contamination of food can occur because of problems in food production, preparation, storage or cooking. The aquatic environment and soft tissue of fishes make it extremely susceptible to microbial contamination. Contamination commonly occurs in the environment in which the seafood (fish) is usually caught, during harvesting, and preparation (Wekell, Manger, Kolburn, Adams & Hill, 1994).
It is classified as a beta-hemolytic streptococcus because when cultured on a blood agar plate all the red blood cells are ruptured by the bacteria. It is also known as beta-hemolytic group A streptococcus. Streptococcus pyogenes begins infection on the surface of the skin or in the throat but is usually found in the throat. It is the same bacteria that the causes Strep throat. This bacteria can be life threaten when it infects the fascia, or connective tissue that surrounds muscles, blood vessels and nerve.
The link between bacteria and ulcers was then established. After a great deal of research, it was revealed that in individuals that were infected with Helicobacter Pylori, antibodies were found in the bloodstream. Helicobacter Pylori are able to attach to cells as they go through the mucous layer of the stomach. When the bacterium enters the stomach, an enzyme called urease converts the stomach cells chemical urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation.
Patients must discontinue mechanical ventilation as soon as possible. Staff and visiting peers should properly was their hands, use sterile techniques for invasive procedures, and isolate those that have the resistant organisms. Another hospital acquired infection s urinary tract infections also known as UTI’s. A urinary tract infection occurs when a bacteria invades the urine and grows. The infection usually starts at the site of the opening of the urethra.
Narrowing down the unknown microorganism to gram negative, this approach was helpful to take the next step, in some bacteria the cell wall is surrounded by cell enveloped called capsule, also some bacteria make capsule when faced in a harsh environment to protect them. A capsule stain was preform, the results were analyzed and observed. An additional procedure that was done, was the Fast Actin staining which helps to see if the bacteria contains Mycolic acid in their cell walls, which determines the structure and function of the cytoskeleton in living and fixed cells (Shah). As expected for both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the fast acting results were negative. For both E.coli and K. Pnenumia the Oxidase test was positive a reaction was obtained.
The lower tract consists of the bladder, whereas the upper tract is the ureter, renal pelvis, and interstitium. Acute cystitis is bladder inflammation and is the usual site of UTIs. Bacteria, fungus, and parasites may cause infections, however, acute cystitis is typically caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus