Using chromogenic media which is based on essential pathogenic virulence factors of listeria has been administered recently . Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Listeria agar with Ottaviani and Agosti(ALOA) is based on detection of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C(PI-PLC) activity which Listeria monocytogene and some strains of L.inanovii hydrolysis the l-α-phosphatidylinositol and produce a fatty acid and form a opaque halo around the colonies [130, 131]. The other media which are similar to ALOA plate include: BCM listeria (Biosynth, Switzerland), OCLA (Oxoid, UK), CHROMagar_ Listeria (BD e Diagnostic Systems, USA) and OAA (bioMérieux, France). Rapid L’mono_ (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA), could distinguish between hemolytic and non hemolytic listeria based on fermentation of xylose. L.ivanovii could ferment the xylose and produce blue colonies with yellow halo but L.monocytogene is non hemolytic and could not ferment the xylose and produce blue colonies without a halo.
But here we are focusing out the antidepressant property of saffranal (33). The principal element of saffron giving a special flavour is picocrocin (C16H26O7) which is stable in fresh saffron but as passage of time and heat it decomposes and in turn releasing the volatile aldehyde called saffranal. It is used in the food processing industry as a colorant and flavouring agent in sausages, margarine, butter, cheese and alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. It is also used for colouring and flavour in ice cream and sauces and dressings (34). Quality of Saffron depends on the concentration of its three major metabolites like Picocrocin (C16H26O7) which is a monoterpene glycoside precursor of saffranal (C10H14O), the major volatile oil responsible for the aroma.
According to Dr. Thomas Lee of Harvard Medical School (1), the ingredients are chiefly an amalgamation of stanols and sterols, and include campesterol, beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Studies have shown that a combination of plant based stanols and stenols helps lower bad cholesterol (LDL) in the body by preventing the absorption of LDL in food. The active ingredients work by drawing LDL from the bloodstream, then converts the cholesterol into hormones and bile acid. Plant stenols and stanols look similar to Cholesterol and are very effective in blocking the uptake of cholesterol into the body. Research has shown that taking 2g of stanols or sterols from plant sources can reduce the LDL by as much as
The reason for this is that equines are particularly sensitive to atropine and related tropane alkaloids. Being hindgut fermenters, the alkaloids are absorbed as the contaminated feed passes through the stomach. The mechanism of action of Datura plant after ingestion is that muscarinic receptor antagonists compete with acetylcholine (ACh) for a common binding site on the muscarinic receptors and thus block the action of ACh at muscarinic neuro effector sites on smooth and cardiac muscle, gland cells, in peripheral ganglia and in the central nervous system (CNS). In general they cause little blockade at nicotinic receptor sites (Brown and Taylor, 2001). Datura intoxication produce hyperthermia, tachycardia, painful photophobia and the presence of pronounced amnesia have been reported (Freye and Enno, 2009).
Traditionally, the Chinese Rhubarb has been used as a laxative in order to relieve constipation and purgative due to its astringent properties. Through the history of rhubarb it has been taken internally for the treatment of chronic constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and menstrual problems. Externally the roots of the plant would be used to treat burns as well. The root has also been used to treat internal pinworms, threadworms, and ringworms. People have further claimed that Rhubarb enhances appetite before meals and even promotes blood circulation to relieve pain from inflammation.2 More so the Chinese Rhubarb is considered to be more of an “alternative” to help alter the course of an ailment of condition.
Based on Iranian traditional documents, buccal inflammatory disease is very important and a separate chapter is devoted to the topic of ulcers and could be searched as “Gholaa”[5, 6]. It is a kind of ulcer that affects surface of the mouth and tongue and it can even be exceeded inner parts of them. In the definition of wounds, it is in corrosive lesions groups and deep infectious ulcers . Meantime, based on these topics and on traditional references, the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties of Ziziphus jujuba , the plant was chosen . Local practitioners also use powder of stem bark of Jujube to cure Aphthous.
epidermidis showed growth only in tubes 7, 8, and 9 after incubation period. Whereas tubes 1 through 6 for concentration between 100 ug/ml to 3.12 ug/ml were observed with no bacterial growth (clear). The minimum concentration at which the growth is inhibited in visual observation was recorded as MIC. This MIC for Vancomycin was 3.12 ug/ml in this experiment. To further examine whether or not the Vancomycin is bactericidal for S. epidermidis and at what concentration, the media plates prepared from the clear tubes in MIC determining step were examined.
The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study on 1,258 pancreatic cancer patients also found no risk in consuming diet soft drinks. The relative risk found for the highest quintile of consumption versus never drinkers was 1.11. A study in California on 532 pancreatic cancer patients, found an increased association in patients who consumed diet coke, particularly in men, however, no associations were reported for caffeine-free diet coke or other diet drinks. A study in Italy between 1991 and 2008 found no associated risk in artificial sweetener consumption and various cancers including oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, colorectal, breast, ovary, prostate, and kidney. They did, however, find that laryngeal cancer was associated with a significant increased risk, with an odds ratio of 2.34 for more than two sachets a day; this association was also noted in regular sugar consumption.
Endang Rahayu S., lecturer of Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Indonesia, said that one of Indonesian traditional food containing probiotics is tape ketan. These foods should be stored in cold temperatures to maintained lactic acid bacteria. This was revealed at a national seminar probiotics and prebiotics as functional food on the campus of the University of Udayana, Bukit Jimbaran, which was conducted in August 2004. (18) Lactic acid bacteria in the tape ketan has a positive effect on the digestive tract, as well as other probiotics. The good bacteria contained in tape ketan can suppress pathogenic bacteria in the intestine causing diarrhea, lowering serum cholesterol and lowering the risk of coronary heart.
Ethyl Cellulose of high grades are used mainly in micro DRUG AND EXCIPIENT PROFILE encapsulation technology. It is used as a thickening agent and it can be used to modify the drug release. It can be used even both in food products and in cosmetics. It can be controlled by diffusion from the formulation. 3.
My Citrate (CIT) result was turquoise so that meant the test was positive, and the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) had no black precipitate so it was negative. The Urea (URE) and Tryptophane Deaminase (TDA) results were both an orange color, which meant they were both negative. For Indole (IND), my result was yellow so it was negative. My result was colorless for the Voges Proskauer (VP) test so it was negative. The Gelatin (GEL) test result had no diffusion of pigment so that showed it was negative.
Conversely, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are both coliforms, which are able to ferment lactose. Of the Enterobacteriaceae family, there are genera that are in the normal human flora. Some species such as K. pneumoniae and E. coli are opportunistic pathogens which can capitalize on weakened host defenses and cause food poisoning (Baron, 1996). S. enterica secrete proteins that help aid in intracellular invasion and proliferation (Hensel, 2009). K. pneumoniae is a part of the normal human mouth, skin, and intestine flora, but can wreak havoc if inhaled (Ryan,