Explain how these factors shape perceptions of Hispanics by other racial groups? Two factors that contribute to Hispanics overrepresentation in the Criminal Justice System are the incarceration for low-level drug offenses and overcriminalizing certain behaviors. The perception of society towards Hispanics is that they are responsible for the majority of the drug crimes. Therefore, law enforcers are giving Hispanics time behind bars to Hispanics for low-level drug offenses.
The environmental stress is when parents condone delinquent behavior and neighborhoods are also unstable giving rise to gang recruitment and conflict. (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p. 144). However, evidence shows that gang behavior is more widespread than confined to the lower-class neighborhoods and is often supervised and controlled by adult organized crime where gang leader operate both legal and illegal businesses (Alder, Laufer, & Mueller, 2013, p. 144). Therefore, researchers use the subculture theory of violence to explain criminal behavior.
Injustice in The Criminal Justice System Due to several injustices within the American justice system, society has become more divided. The criminal justice system in the United States has been criticized for being a race-based establishment Institutions where minorities are subjected to more strenuous punishments than their white counterparts. Nonetheless, it goes without any debate that racism exists in the justice system. Are these realities the errors of a moral justice system, or does it prove that the criminal bias organization is working as expected? Is the criminal justice system utilized to regulate and manage the minority population?
Many of the incarceration rates for African Americans are about six and a half times greater than that of Caucasians. African Americans make up close to thirteen percent of the U.S. population, yet they happen to represent thirty-eight percent of violent crime arrests. The prison population accounts for forty percent of the African Americans incarcerated. Racial disparity exists mainly due to the mass media and the emergence of crack cocaine. Poverty also goes hand and hand with racial disparity in the United States.
Introduction Traditionally criminological theory and criminal justice practices have been focused on the criminal in an effort to reduce crime. The United States had over nine million crimes reported to law enforcement in 2016 (FBI, 2017). Such a large number of crimes lend to the notion that there must be many similarities in offenders and comparable incidents suitable for analysis that fall within accepted criminological theories to provide predictable concepts that could be utilized to reduce crime. This simply is not true. Crime and its causes are complex due to a number of various factors that may motivate offenders and furnish suitable opportunities.
Numerous studies have provided different perspectives and evidence on the impact of racial inequality in the criminal justice systems, specifically how these racial inequalities affect black Americans. Lisa Miller found in The Invisible Black: Victim, “mistreatment by law enforcement, law-makers, and federalism” in the racial bias toward black Americans (2010). Pettit and Skyes in Civil Rights Legislation and Legalized Exclusion, point out that black males are more likely to end up in jail (2015). A sociologist named David Garland contrived the term “mass incarceration” to explain high incarceration rates in the United States (U.S) (Pettit and Skyes 2015). Currently, the highest incarceration is among black men of 1 in 15 (Miller 2010).
Writing Assignment 3 Traditionally, intermediate sanctions are designed for offenders who require a correctional opinion that is more punitive and restrictive than routine probation but less severe than imprisonment. Intermediate sanctions are used for a variety of offenders. Persons accused crimes and released into the community, persons convicted of misdemeanors and felonies directly sentenced to an intermediate sanction, and jail inmates. Unlike probation and parole, it is difficult to accurately determine the number of offenders involved in intermediate sanctions or even the number of intermediate sanctions that exist in different areas. Intermediate sanctions are alternate punishments used to monitor offenders who are neither under
State sanctions is important in where incarnation can negatively impact job prospect despite desistance from crime after an incarnation. State sanctions bring in the question of class (Laub and Sampson, 1993/2011, p. 266), as Sampson and Laub (1993/2011) points out, middle-class boys are less likely to be sanctioned while as a delinquent therefore not impacting their future, also in Thornberry (1987/2011, p. 252) mentioning how middle-class boys are much more likely to not be in criminogenic environments. On the contrary, despite the negative effects of early negative sanctions, at age 48, desisters are just as successful in life as the unconvicted, as compared to the data at age 32 where desisters have significantly lower life success (Farrington et al., 2006). It is of no surprise to see that late-onset offenders to be deemed less successful in their lives than desisters, as late-onset offenders start gathering social capital at a later stage after losing their initial social
Plea bargains are supposed to help the courts not to be overcrowded, but in return, innocent people are being locked up. Another reason of why the courts are the most problematic component in the criminal justice system is because of the corruption in the courts. Examples of the corruption that happens in courts can include jury tampering, racism, and judges being bribed. The forms of corruption that occur in the courtroom can have an impact on the end result of a case. Judges and jurors may be bribed to alter the verdict of a case.
Strain theory however takes a completely different approach and examines the social strain as humanities punishment. Work within the structure society has product or become members of a deviant subculture to achieve the same goals, just through alternative means. Strain theory was designed to explain why U.S.A had a large influx in gangs. Therefore, examples of crimes under strain would be selling or associating with illegal substances or becoming involved in illegal activities such as theft.
In fact, it is from the poor and the underclass that have the most prison inmates in the United States (Henslin 211). The reason the criminal justice system is so focused on the working class is because if they become enraged, it could lead to a rising of a revolt. In an effort to please the lower classes, the courts will occasionally go after the executives of corporations and give the case major publicity to provide evidence of the "fairness" of the criminal justice system (Henslin 211). Since bigger corporations don 't have a punishment to fit the crime, their white-collar crimes are continued. Whereas, the poor 's punishment for minor crimes cause them to believe they are truly criminals.
Through my research I continuously asked myself; why are there more people of color incarcerated than whites? Is it because they commit more crimes? Or are parts of the criminal justice system flawed and discriminatory? Nonetheless, if the there is some kind of discrimination, does this explain poverty in African American and Hispanic communities? I found that, today, people of color are more likely to be incarcerated and sentenced disproportionally than their white counterparts.
According to the article released by Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), males accounted for 74.59 percent of the over 12 million arrests in the United States (Federal Bureau of Investigation,2014). This disparities in crimes committed by the two genders is a trend that is seen worldwide. Although it was that female crime rates would come close to male crime rate as the two genders took similar responsibilities in society. Research shows that the social status of male and female criminal is basically the same, which means that there must be something that results in the disparity. Studies have linked masculinity to criminal behavior in males.
Gang violence and activity has arisen in the past decades, with exceeding concerns and amongst youth being the primary target. Law enforcement try to gain a better understanding to why people are falling into criminal activity. Throughout the following essay we will be summarizing the background of one of the most notorious gang known internationally, MS-13. In addition, we will also be explaining ways different criminology theorist and theories apply to these particular group of people.
From Life to ‘Death Row Granny’ What comes to mind when thinking of grandmothers? Cookies, acts of spoiling, and love are just a few, but what does not come to mind may be something like arsenic killings. Yet, in Velma Barfield’s case, one might want to ponder this carefully. Obviously, arsenic poisoning is not something a normal grandmother would be known for, so it is not striking to assume some sort of strain took place in Barfield’s life.