Over the years it is observed that the study of language was a complex activity. One of the topics that have been asked is how language was developed and who are the main the main creators of different approaches or theories that study the language. The election of that topic was based on the idea of explain how is formed the structure of language and how important it is for the future. This essay evaluate the differences between the Structuralism, created by Ferdinand Saussure (1916) and the Generative Grammar found by Avram Noam Chomsky (1950) based on division of a series of criteria’s such as grammar, the linguistic sign and finally in the dichotomy between language and parole. Structuralism is defined in words of Ross Murfin and Supryia
As I mentioned above, language is just a tool in assisting the thought. Language does not alter or change the perception of the nature and content. On the other views of Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, the relationship between language and thought can be based on the individual’s experience. Since I am a bilingual and learn the second language at a very young age, comprehension in my second language is sometimes based on my first
(Skinner,1957,as cited in Shaffer,et.al,2002). This theory explains that the language starts on what they see or hear, the children will imitate what they see on their parents or the people around them. The guardian or the parents will reinforce the students and give them punishment so the children or the students will develop themselves. Interactionist Theory . Interactionists argue that language development is both biological and social.
Second Language Acquisition- A literature review of the critical period hypothesis: are children more prone to learning a second language? The world human beings live in is rising due to an unstoppable tide of technology merging all cultures into one. This requires that individuals learn more than one language to fulfill their vocational and social duties in general. Ever since the beginning of time, individuals used different forms of language to communicate; this has distinguished them from animals, some used drawings, others used letters and finally humanity developed in a way to reach the ultimate idea of language and grammar. Language is one of the major tools of communication amongst human beings; cognitive psychologists thus thrive to
This essay will focus on the four theories of language acquisition and centre around whether they are nature or nurture and how this results in each theory differing from one another. The theory of behaviorism was developed by Burrhus Frederick Skinner. He believed that children developed language through imitation and reinforcement from the environment surrounding them, suggesting that it was nurture responsible for a child developing language rather than nature. Skinner thought that a child could develop language through positive reinforcement, he believed if a parent was to reward their child for babbling it would increase the frequency of the child being vocal. He believed, however, if the parents were not to provide positive reinforcement the child would not further develop from babbling on to producing structured speech as they would not be encouraged to move on from this.
Reverse racism, often used in relation to what is seen as prejudice within a subjugated group. It describes discriminatory actions by members of a minority group against a dominant racial or other group representative of the majority in a particular society. The debatable subject is that those who campaign for the interests of ethnic minorities commonly reject this usage of term, and those representing the dominant majority use this as a rebut toward some of the actions from the minorities. As an example, the mainstream of hip-pop/rap music has always been dominated by the Blacks, therefore when comes to other races of hip-pop singers, they usually do not embrace the acceptance of those without the natural talent that they own. Yet from the perspective of the minorities, "racism" is defined not only in terms of individual prejudice, but also in terms of a power structure which protects the only the interests of the dominant culture and actively discriminates against the ethnic minorities.
According to Chomsky's theory, any given language stimuli with the help of this inherent device can develop grammatical rules, which deep structure is universal for all languages (Paraskevopoulos, 1985). This device is developing simultaneously with the brain and needs only a small amount of stimuli in order to activate (Cole & Cole, 2002). This theory explains how infants can learn any language and so quickly, however, other theorists have major concerns about diving language and thought. Also, other linguists claimed that Chomsky's theory is unimaginative because it assumes that language is innate. Furthermore, the existence of a device is not yet proven by biologists and the minimisation of the environmental effects is highly criticised (Gleason,
Since the existence of this country, society has been dealing with so many controversial political and social issues, racism and racial profiling are one of those social problems. Racism is an overpowering, disgusting, and popular act which has been destroying our country. A big issue in our society, is the still existing gap between all kinds of different races. We have known America as a multicultural country and a melting pot for all types of individuals. All the differences in an individual person have some sort of effect in a person’s life, those inequalities disturb opportunities at work, at home, where we live, in politics, etc.
These point that I listed above show the idea of a social hierarchy and how it is used in the society itself. Using the main points that were listed above, The social hierarchy in the society of Anthem tie in with the idea of society that everyone should be the same and equality is not existent in the society. Overall, the difference in power between the people in the society show that the people can never