The saponification (a reaction in making soap) process is a base (usually NaOH or KOH) hydrolysis of triglycerides to make salt (soap) and glycerol. Alkalis such as Sodium carbonate and Sodium hydroxide are used to neutralize the fatty acid and convert it to a salt. The molecules crystallize differently depending on the base used. NaOH produces a harder bar while KOH is used more frequently for liquid soaps. In some cases, Lithium soaps are formed and produce much harder soaps.
These cations have a tendency to combine with anions (negatively charged ions) in the water to form stable salts. The type of anion found in these salts has therefore been used to distinguish between the two types of hardness-carbonate and non carbonate hardness (Table2). Table 2 shows that carbonate hardness is caused by Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions combined with anion (CO3 2- or HCO3 - or OH-) to form a salt. In contrast, non-carbonate hardness forms when Ca2+ and Mg2+ combine with anything other than carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide ions. Carbonate hardness is sometimes called temporary hardness because it can be removed by boiling the water.
solids or oils. Also used for purification of contaminated water and homemade perfumes. Fractional Distillation: Those mixtures whose components have boiling point difference of 25°C and cannot be separated by simple distillation, can be separated by fractional distillation. This process is done in a fractionating column (tray or packed). The more volatile component is collected at the top of column and less volatile component is collected at the bottom of column.
Concentrate the methylene chloride solution of benzyl alcohol by using distillation assembly placed in a water bath, until the volume of the residual liquid reduced to half volume. 4. Cool the remaining liquid, transfer it to a separatory funnel and shake it thoroughly with two 1 mL portions of 20% aqueous sodium bisulfite to remove any benzaldehyde. Wash the methylene chloride solution finally with two 1 mL portions of water and dry it with 0.5-1 g of anhydrous magnesium sulfate. 5.
Aim This experiment separates the constituents of a commercial headache powder employing the use of extraction method. The active ingredients of the commercial headache powder were extracted by dissolving the powdered tablet in propanone solvent. The suspended fine particle binders in the propanone solution were removed by filtration method. The solid analgesia was obtained by evaporating propanone solvent. It was then collected on Hirsh funnel by filtration.
Research Question: What is the size of the bacteria, after washing your hands with different types of soap? (E.g. antibacterial and perfume soap) Hypothesis: In this experiment, I will touch one certain object and then use 2 or 3 different types of soaps and test the bacteria growth of each one. I believe that the one without being washed will generate the largest size of bacteria; while the antibacterial soap will have the smallest. Since the main purpose of antibacterial sap is to kill off bacteria; the perfume soap which those clean hands but also leaves a nice scent will have a moderate amount, in between the amount the unwashed section and the antibacterial soap will generate.
The reaction involves the formation of Copper (II) oxide which is reduced to Copper (I) oxide in the presence of aldehydes. Wheareas Benedict 's solution is a single solution of Copper (II) sulfate dissolved in a Sodium carbonate/Sodium citrate buffer. This reacts with the electrons from the ketone or aldehyde group of the free reactive carbonyl group on the carbohydrate to form cuprous oxide (a red-brown precipitate). This precipitate is formed due to the reduction of the Cu2+ ions to Cu+ ions that form Copper (I) oxide which is a brick-red precipitate. In the process, the carbohydrate is oxidized.
,  The uses of BS agar are for the inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria and coliform by the presence of BS indicator and brilliant green. BS agar allows growth of Salmonella spp. Enzymatic digest of Casein, Enzymatic of Animal tissue and beef extract in the agar supply sources of nitrogen, carbon, and vitamins essential for the organism growth. Dextrose acts as the carbohydrate source and Disodium Phosphate as the buffering agent. The production of Hydrogen Sulfide is from the Ferrous Sulfate where the iron is precipitated and results in brown to black colour with metallic sheen colony.
The oxidation and hydrolysis process can be measured by the acids value (free fatty acid, FFA). Acids value is a common parameter in the specification of fats and oils. It is the measure of of the free fatty acids (FFA) present in the fat or oil. An increment in the amount of FFA in a sample of oil or fat indicates hydrolysis of triglycerides. There are instances where hydrolysis of triglycerides and oxidation of FFA are the key in
MINOR METHODS OF DISINFECTION Following are the minor methods of disinfection: • Boiling method • Excess lime treatment • Iodine and bromine treatment • Ozone treatment • Potassium permanganate • Silver treatment • UV ray treatment 2.1 BOILING METHOD When the water is boiled above a certain temperature, bacteria are killed. The boiling of water is the most effective method of disinfection. But to boil water on a large scale is impracticable.However, in case of epidemic; the consumers may be advised to boil the water