Saponification – A process that produces soap, usually from fats and lye. Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. When triglycerides in fat/oil react with aqueous NaOH or KOH, they are converted into soap and glycerol. This is called alkaline hydrolysis of esters. Since this reaction leads to the formation of soap, it is called saponification.
Caffeine, tannins (phenolic substances) and a little chlorophyll can also be found in tea leaves. Hot water extraction can be used to separate caffeine from the tea leaves (mainly cellulose) as water can form hydrogen bonds with water and solubilise (water has higher solubility at higher temperatures). However, tannins are also water soluble but they display acidic properties instead. Thus, a basic salt like sodium carbonate can be added to bind to tannins to form a salt. Although now both the tannins salt and caffeine are water soluble, using an organic solvent, dichloromethane, renders tannins salt insoluble.
Secondly, filter this mixture to remove the remaining silica and other insoluble materials. Next, add oxalic acid (H2C204), to the limestone powered. This mixture will create a calcium oxalate ( CaC2O4), and aqueous carbonic acid ( H2C03), according to this formula: CaC03 + H2C2O4 -> CaC2O4 + H2CO3. The next step is to rinse the calcium oxalate and sprinkle some deionized water and pour it into a beaker. Then add hydrochloric acid to create calcium chloride (CaCl2), according to the formula: CaC2O4 + 2HCl -> CaCl2 + 2CO2 + H2.
Skin Care Benefits Anti-wrinkle: •Jojoba oil reduce the appearance of wrinkles, firm and moisturize your skin. Being rich in vitamin E, it is able to eliminate free radicals that are responsible for skin aging. And linoleic acid and the antioxidants
Mineral oil 2. Glycerin suppositories Lubricates and facilitates the passage of hard stools. Mineral oil should be taken orally in upright position to avoid its aspiration and potential lipid or lipoid pneumonia. • Osmotic laxatives: 1. Magnesium hydroxide and Magnesium sulphate: these are nonabsorbable salts that hold water in intestine by osmosis.
Table 3: Uses of sodium lauryl sulfate. Use Concentration (%) Anionic emulsifier, forms self-emulsifying bases with fatty alcohols 0.5–2.5 Detergent in medicated shampoos ≈10 Skin cleanser in topical applications 1 Solubilizer in concentrations greater than critical micelle concentration >0.0025 Tablet lubricant 1.0–2.0 Wetting agent in dentrifices 1.0–2.0
It reacts with the melanin in the hair and removes the color in a chemical reaction that is not reversible. The sodium hypochlorite oxidizes the melanin, which is still present, but the oxidized molecule is left with no color. Bleached hair usually has a yellow tint. The natural color of keratin is the yellow color, which is the protein in the hair. Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most common lightening tools because it is used in a solution of alkaline that opens up the hair shaft to allow it to react with the melanin of the hair.
In the separatory funnel, the top layer is the organic solvent and the bottom layer because the aqueous solvent has a higher density thus it sinks. The property of "like dissolves like" can be used to distinguish or to be certain which solvent is on the top or bottom. A few drops of water introduced through the top of the separatory funnel and if the water drops mix with the first layer, then the first layer is the aqueous solvent but if it passes the first layer and goes to the second layer then the bottom layer is the aqueous solvent. However, the aqueous solvent being the bottom layer is not always the case and this can be seen when halogenated solvents such as dichloromethane are mixed with water. Halogenated solvents are denser than aqueous solvents and thus halogenated solvents sink to the bottom.
They should have properties of pleasant, or preferably no, taste or odour and not be subject to rancidity. There are several oils selection such as vegetable oil, mineral oil and cocoa butter. (Poucher’s perfumes, cosmetic and soaps, 1999) Castor oil is the vegetable oil that mostly use in lipstick because it is very thick and maintains viscosity when hot, making it ideal properties for blending with other ingredients.
SOLUBILITY AND SOLUBILITY PRODUCT OBJECTIVE In this experiment you will determine the solubility and solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt, potassium hydrogen tartrate, and also in four solutions containing a common ion. INTRODUCTION When a salt of low dissolubility dissolves in water, equilibrium is established between the solid solute and the dissolved ions. There are two terms used in discussing this condition.
LHA Cleansing Gel (SkinCeuticals) LHA Cleansing Gel from SkinCeuticals combines effective skin cleansers with LHA, salicylic acid, and glycolic acid to aging skin prone to breakouts. The cleanser clears out clogged pores, evens out skin tone, and smooths irregularities. The cleanser acts as a gentle exfoliant, which helps even out the surface of the skin while unclogging pores. The LHA helps diminish fine lines, wrinkles, and rough skin texture, while also smoothing out skin color.
Distillation usually works because organic compounds have boiling points which are different from each other. Usually a mixture of two compounds is placed in a round bottom flask. Heat is then applied to the mixture in the round bottom flask and as a result, the compound present in the mixture with the lower boiling point vaporizes first. The vapor then condenses in a condenser because the condenser has cool water to cool the vapor. The condensed vapor then travels into another flask at the other end of the distillation
The fatty acids in these are then made into fatty alcohols then undergo another process to sulfonate them into crystalline salt. Sodium Laureth Sulphate is Sodium Lauryl Sulphate that has been through a process called ethoxylation. Honestly (October 2015). Stacey Rosenberg (02/11/2014) Benzoyl Peroxide
I assume by my results that using more soap will not affect how many germs are removed, because when you get to a sertain point when the one layer of soap covers your hands when you put more layers it is harder to get all of the layers of soap to actually come into contact with your hands. But it is possible that if you use more soap and scrub with lots of friction you will get all of the new layers of soap in contact with your hands. You could also use just two or three pumps and then rinse it off and reapeat it, that will defidently remove more germs. I also assumed that antibacterial soap would give better results because it is filled with active microbial inredients which would remove more germs, but if you used normal soap and had more friction you would get the same relults as if you used antibacterial soap and washed with not much friction.
As many of you are familiar with, nasal rinses work wonders on clearing out nasal congestion, and now they help to reduce nasal polyps. The solution is made from a teaspoon of salt, Epsom if available, and warm water. The water needs to be warm enough that the salt dissolves after stirring it, but cool enough not to burn you. Once it’s mixed, you would use a bulb syringe or other appliance to administer the nasal rinse. • Hot Shower/Bath: There are many healing qualities to be discovered by taking a nice and relaxing shower or bath.