Step-III: Synthesis of Cr(II) Complexes: The Schiff's base complexes were synthesized by mixing the Schiff's base (1.5 g) in ethanolic solution of Chromium chloride [CrCl2]. This reaction is refluxed in a waterbath for two hours and their volume were reduced to 70% of it’s original volume and residue was obtained. The coloured product obtained was filtered under suction, washed with ethanol. The product were recrystallized from ethanol. Their yields ranges from 50-55%, the product obtained were light green colour and melting point was 2100C.
1.00 ml 10 g Ni (iii) Hydrochloric acid (L.R. grade) 1.0 N : Dilute 100 ml concentrated hydrochloric acid to 1000 ml with grade I distilled water. (iv) Bromine water : Saturate distilled water with bromine to prepare Bromine water. (v) Heptoximereagent : Dissolve 0.1 g 1,2 –cycloheptanedionedioxime (heptoxime) in 100 ml 95 % ethyl alcohol. (vi) Sodium tartrate solution : Dissolve 10g sodium tartrate (Na2C4H4O6.2 H2O) in 90 ml distilled water.
Subsequently extracted by Microwave at power level 70 for 16 minutes and then filtered. The filtrate obtained, was added 10% HCl (until pH 2-3). Then do the bleaching with NaOCl diluted with water 1: 1 to white. Then converted to sodium alginate by adding 20 g of Na2CO3 and stirred in a mixer. The resulting solution is then etched with ethanol to form sodium alginate fibers.
The ion exchange capacity is measured by the chemical titration [Hasimi A, Stavropoulou A, Papadokostaki KG, Sanopoulou M. Euro Polym J (2008) 4098-107]. In order to measure the IEC values, the dry samples were soaked in 1M aqueous NaCl solution at room temperature for 24 hours to exchange of proton by sodium ions. The ion-exchanged NaCl solution was back titrated with 0.1M NaOH solution using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The protonic conductivity measurements were made through via Nyquist plot using N4L PSM 1735 series LCZ meter with amplitude of 10 mV from 1 Hz to 1 MHz The proton conductivity values are calculated
Into round bottom flask taken 180 ml nHexane . Extracted at 75°C for 24 h until the solvent leached colourless. Dry solvent from sample. Followed by transesterification Transesterification process Transesterification is the process by which the glycerides present in fats or oils react with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to form esters and glycerol Chemical-Catalyzed Transesterification. In a 150 mL Erlenmeyer flask with a magnetic stir bar placed 0.25 g of anhydrous sodium hydroxide and dissolved it with 10 mL of methanol.
One millilitreer of the lichen extract (1 mg/mL) in a volumetric flask was diluted with distilled water (46 mL), and the content was mixed in a volumetric flask after adding. oOne millilitreer of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was added and the content of the flask was mixed. thoroughly . After 3 min, 3 mL of 2% sodium carbonate (2 %) was added and then was allowed to standleft for 2 h with intermittent shaking. The reaction absorbance of prepared mixture absorbance was measured at 760 nm in a spectrophotometer (Jenway UK).
Then, the flask is put on shaker table and mixed at 150 rounds per minute before allowing them to settle for 10 minutes. After settling, the water sample is poured from side spout which is connected to the bottom of the flask. Some researchers reported better reproducibility with modified flask where stopcock is installed at the bottom of the flask, instead of side spout to pour the water sample (Blondina, et al., 1997) (Sorial, et al., 2004a) (Sorial, et al., 2004b). The dispersed oil in the removed water sample is extracted into methylene chloride for further analysis. Then, the oil concentration is evaluated using 340, 370 and 400 nm light absorbance (Environmental Protection Agency,
3.5 SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS First, 10g of the RSS were transferred into a thimble. At the same time, 150mL of solvent was poured into the round bottomed flask. Then, Soxhlet were heated using heating mantle. The oil was recovered from the solvent by evaporation of the solvent in a rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. The mixture of the oil and excess solvent was poured into a weighed round bottomed flask.
Add 75 Ml Conc.HNO3 and heat the flask on a boiling water bath. On heating the flask sugar dissolves in nitric acid and copious evolution of nitrous fumes comes out. Discontinue heating. The reaction subsides in about 20 minutes. Pour the hot solution into a porcelain dish, wash the flask with 15 mL of nitric acid and evaporate the acid solution on a water bath
The peel powder was soaked overnight (or for desired period) at room temperature (30-32°C) for extraction with intermittent shaking. After extraction, it was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min and filtered through Whatman No. 2 filter paper. The effective volume obtained after centrifugation was noted. 2.3 Determination of radical scavenging activity (RSA) Determination of RSA was carried out according to Murthy, Jayaprakasha, & Singh (2002) using DPPH as stable free radical and butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) as standard.