All human activities are brought about by particular former intentions, yet liberty and necessity are reconcilable when we characterize liberty as an issue of acting or not acting, as per the determinations of the will. Nothing in this meaning of liberty is in clash with the thought of necessity (Garrett,
Human’s free will is one of the most debatable problems in the field of both philosophy and ethics. Does everybody has a control on his choices and actions or it all was determined in advance. According to the Scottish philosopher David Hume on the problem of free will: “the most contentious question of metaphysics, the most contentious science” . Free will is defined as the ability of humans to make decisions that are not determined by divine intervention or caused by a preceding cause . It is agreed by philosophers who dealt with the problem of free will that a human is not free to make a choice unless he could have done otherwise, in what is known as the principle of alternative possibilities .
One view of reality is the view that things have intrinsic essences. If accepted, this view gives one the conventional view of reality, which then causes them to remain in suffering. In contrast, Madhyamaka holds that one can view reality as entirely lacking intrinsic essences. To realize this is to thoroughly realize that everything is dependently originated and thus lacking svabhāva. This is the liberating realization in Madhyamaka.
With change, the being would be becoming something else, which therefore would lead to the one being passing away and a new being coming to be, and this simply is impossible. Something cannot come nothing, but if it came from something that already was being, then itself is a contradiction because that thing already exists and is not changing. Rationale: Curd writes on page 56 that some of the features of genuine being are: “What is must be whole, complete, unchanging and one. It can neither come to be nor pass away, nor undergo any qualitative change. Only what is in this way can be grasped by thought and genuinely known”.
As Pecorino (2000) defined it, “existentialism is a philosophical movement or tendency, emphasizing individual existence, freedom, and choice that influenced many diverse writers in the 19th and 20th centuries”. From the definition, it can be said that it is a view that all humans should determine their own meaning in life, and therefore try to make rational decisions in spite of existing in an irrational universe. The central point of the idea is the question of human existence, and the feeling that there is no purpose or explanation at the innermost of existence. It further holds that there is no God or any other superior force, and that the only means to opposed this nonexistence is by willingly accepting existence. The following paragraphs discuss the main feature of the existentialist view which includes; existence precedes essence, the absurd, facticity, authenticity, the Other and the Look, angst and dread, despair, etc.
According to Cavell on differentiating between the animate and inanimate: “…there are no marks or features or criteria or rhetoric by means of which to tell the difference between them. From which, let me simply claim, it does not follow that the difference is unknowable or undecidable. On the contrary, the difference is the basis of everything there is for human beings to know, or say decide (like deciding to live), and to decide on no basis beyond or beside or beneath ourselves.” The separation of animate and inanimate is impossible until one acknowledges the separateness of the other; another person is not just an extension of
This however is brought down the same way as substance dualism. Only one infinite substance exists (Def.6) and this substance is everything and nothing outside it exists since substance is existence (Prop.7). Spinoza strikes down the form of substance pluralism that suggests a new substance derived from the ‘original‘ substance by proving there can not be two substances with the same nature or attribute (Prop.5). The definition of substance states that substance is “the conception of which does not require the conception of another thing”. This means that the new substance would have to have similar attributes but this cannot be since “distinct things are distinguished from each other by difference of attributes… [or] affections” (Prop.4).
Existentialism can be defined as the philosophy concerning itself with finding self and the said meaning of life through free will, personal responsibility and choice. This belief is that people are out there in the world searching to find out what they are and who they are throughout life and how these people will make choices in life because of their outlook, beliefs, and experiences. These personal choices become unique to the person without the necessity of an objective form of truth. Overall an existentialist believes that a person should be forced to be responsible and choose without the assistance of laws, ethnic rules or traditions. According to Pecorino (2000), people who have involved themselves with this philosophical movement exclude
Identity remains as one of the few things humans have absolute control over. Every person’s is singular to his or her own self. Though some may argue that identity cannot be shaped or molded, the entire point of human existence is that we are self-aware enough to change who we are. That is what differs us from other mammals. Not only can humans alter their identity, but they can also hide a true one.
It means there is no definite imperative or guidance on which all the people could rely on. Any honest reflection would reveal that the universe is a bottomless void of unknown, and the experience of nothingness is unavoidable part of human existence. Therefore, the only purpose or meaning to undertake is the one individual chooses for themselves, and the only value to their life is the one they give. In a nutshell, the key principles of Existentialism are as follows: • the fundamental principle is that “existence precedes essence”, i. e., people are what they do, their existence comes first, and only then they define themselves through their choices and actions that follow them; • the categories of absurdity of life, fear, despair, loneliness, suffering, and death are put forward; • the person has to oppose the society, the state, the hostile environment, because they all impose their will, morality, and ideals upon the individual; • the notion of alienation and absurdity are interconnected; • the freedom of the individual has the highest vital value; • the existence of man is interpreted as a drama of