He particularly focuses on questions of health and illness, sanity and madness, lawabiding and criminal actions/bodies, and normal and deviant sexualities (2006:144). The main focus of Foucault’s philosophy was power relations in modern society and how it can be used to control people. This originated from an intense disliking of the bourgeois society and its culture. He sympathised with groups at the margins of the bourgeoisie, such as the mentally ill, homosexuals and prisoners (Gutting 2014:2). This essay will analyse how Foucault’s theories can be applied to discourse in literature with specific reference to the short story, “The Idiots” and the novel, “Heart of Darkness” both written in the 19th century by Joseph Conrad.
The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down In the book, The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman explores the cultural collision between the Hmong Lee family and their American doctors. Along with the culture clash, the social stigma against the Hmong family brings to light a lot of the systematic, moral, and ethical issues that can arise in our healthcare. Ultimately, the combination of the cultural clash in medical perspectives, the underlying social stigma, the inadequate treatment, and the miscommunication hindered the proper diagnosis and recovery of led to the demise of the Hmong child. However, many of the problems could have been easily avoided or resolved with more patience, objectivity, and most importantly, cultural competence. Cross-cultural methods and approaches should be taken to accommodate for the diverse patient population in our communities.
(2009). Psychological Assessment, 21(1), 1-21. doi:10.1037/a0014421 In this article, the writer chooses to highlight the various risk assessment models used with sexual offenders and the impact it has on recidivism. Throught the various models, it is shown that either a statistical approach is utilized, or one involving professional judgements and evaluations. By using both types of models, one can base a prediction of some kind on how high or low the risk will be to repeat offend. It was also found that unstructured studies and models were far less accurate in the prediction of recidivism versus studies or models which used empirical data.
OVERCOMING MENTAL HEALTH STIGMA GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON MENTAL HEALTH DISODERS: What is mental health stigma? : Mental health stigma can be divided into two distinct types: social stigma is characterized by prejudicial attitudes and discriminating behaviour directed towards individuals with mental health problems as a result of the psychiatriclabel they have been given. On the other hand, perceived stigma or self-stigma is the internalizing by the mental health sufferer of their perceptions of discrimination (Link, Cullen, Struening & Shrout, 1989), and perceived stigma can significantly affect feelings of shame and lead to poorer treatment outcomes (Perlick, Rosenheck, Clarkin, Sirey et al., 2001). Back in the early 2000’s, there are a lot of cases pertaining mental health stigma and that society tends to discriminate these people with this disability rather than realizing the actual daily routine that a mental disorder patient go through in their lives. It is a lot harder than we think as most of us don’t encounter mental stigma thoughts.
Murphy (1986) reminds us that in the U.K., the popularity of medical genetics and the abuse of Darwinism created increasingly racial and racist accounts of why certain groups of people were more degraded or tainted than others. Very little was known or researched on what was happening to large groups of individuals who were needing or seeking help in the context of alienation and disadvantage. Power in the two approaches Foucault points out that juridical systems of power produce the subjects they subsequently come to represent” Power in transcultural psychotherapy inevitably “reproduces” what it claims merely to “ represent”, which is decentralization and seclusion. Fukuyama (1991) commented that “many people belonging to cultural groups who do not fit within the dominant culture power structure experience various forms
Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” and Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Tell-Tale Heart” are stylistically similar works with several parallels and differences. The two tales juxtaposed portray an overarching theme of mental illness in the 1800s, observing the way society sees and cares for mental disorders. Discussed in this essay are the narrators’ social roles and mistreatment, their motives to become destructive, and the distinctive ways in which they act in attempt to liberate themselves from their oppression and obsession, respectively. Without historical context, it is harder to understand why the narrators’ disorders devolve to induce such maniacal behavior. In the nineteenth century, the majority of “treatment” for mental disorders amounted to sticking victims in an insane asylum.
Furthermore, the pervasive stigma against them leads to increased cost and poorer health outcomes. Instead of looking at a patient’s violent behavior on the superficial level, one should take into account the patient’s diagnosis and past experience. For instance, violent behavior is prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and it is also the most common reason for the admission to a psychiatric inpatient unit (Krakowski, Czobor, Citrome, Bark, & Cooper, 2006). Many are also under-diagnosed and under-treated, resulting in wide treatment gaps. Most of them require psychoanalytic treatment to cope with their violent behavior.
Social distance has been applied to give an insight into stigma and negative attitude towards the mentally ill as shown in research conducted by Marie & Miles, (2008), Arboleda-Florez & Sartorius, (2008), Giannakopoulos et al., (2012), Economou,et al., (2014), Murman, et al., (2014). Emory Bogardus (1925), was first credited with implementing social distance in his research on the intergroup relation, and it is still applied today on how group fare and social acceptance (Parrillo & Donoghue, 2013) towards other groups. Based on literature (e.g., Marie & Miles, 2008; Ayazi, Lien, Eide, Shadar, & Hauff, 2014) mental illness is a factor which influence social distance, where individuals will seek to avoid this particular group leading to rejection and fractured identity (Vogel, Bitman, Hammer, & Wade, 2013; Feldman & Crandell, 2007). CONSTRUCT- IN RELATION TO THEORY Contact is a method used to combat negative attitude (Seewooruttun & Scior, 2014), thus reducing social distance. The type of contact made with others plays a key factor in determining whether social distance has a causal effect as drawn from the Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985), on health care professional (Jorm, & Oh, 2009) towards the mentally ill.
It relies on the morality principle acting as a censor and conscience by telling what is right and wrong. (Thompson & Meggit, 2004) Freud proposed a “stage theory”. He believed that an individual must pass through one stage to reach the next stage of development and thought that each stage could have a negative outcome and an individual could become stuck or fixated in a stage (O 'Brien, 2013). Freud’s five stages of psychosexual development are: • Oral (0-2 years) • Anal (2-3 years) • Phallic (3-6 years) • Latent (6-11 years) • Genital (11+ years) He also studied a number of defence mechanisms. “Defence mechanisms are mental processes which are automatically triggered when anxiety occurs”
3 adaptive function of this mechanism is questionable from a social point of view, it is effective in preserving the integrity of an individual and his self-esteem. These observations make it possible to understand fitness of false memories of sexual abuse created in therapy in the 1990s. A study conducted by Rubis and Bernsten (2007; as cited in Brédart, 2012) has shown that people who are receiving individual therapy are most likely to believe that they were sexually abused in childhood. According to the authors, those people has constructed false memories because they provide a reason, a justification for their current psychological distress. Research has shown that false memories, changing or upsetting personal history, may preserve a person by making his behaviour consistent with his identity.