exceeding the ionization potential. Secondary electron detectors are common in all SEMs. A SEM with secondary electron imaging or SEI can produce very high-resolution images of a sample surface, revealing details less than 1 nm in size. Back-scattered electrons (BSE): they are beam electrons that are reflected from the sample by elastic scattering. BSE are often used in analytical SEM along with the spectra made from the characteristic X-rays.
Dinesh2 In the scenario, Steel framed structures plays an important role in construction industry because they are cost efficient, sustainable, durable, ductile and safe. To analyze the structure under seismic loads, the deformed geometry and the non-linear behavior of the structure is to be considered. Hence to determine the performance of the structure, non-linear or pushover analysis is performed. The pushover testing has been carried out on two frames namely bare frame and Steel braced frame. The research concentrates on a computer based push-over analysis technique In this present study, nonlinear analysis of Steel frame using ANSYS 14.5 under the horizontal loading has been carried out.
Although the rock fails under tensile stress, the cracks are formed gradually by crack extension and propagation. Stress concentration is the very important part in the control direction of propagation (Jiag, 1996). The explosion load exerted at the weak planes such as joints and bedding planes in sharply attenuates and does not break rock masses. These weak planes may produce the internal damage of rock masses and reduce their load-bearing capacity and stability. In surface blasting operation, the effect of blasting area have been difficult and yet not solved (Zang and Chang, 1999).
A significant amount of training and specialized skill is required in order to successfully operate either of them. Similarly there exists many differences between these microscopes. The method used in SEM is based on scattered electrons while TEM is based on transmitted electrons. The scattered electrons in SEM are classified as backscattered or secondary electrons. However, there is no other classification of electrons in
SEM is more superior from multiple regression as is also took into consideration the modeling of interactions, nonlinearities, correlates independent measurement error, correlated error terms, multiple latent independent each measured by multiple indicators. As an extension of general liner model, it enables to run a set of multiple regression simultaneously. Moreover, it also allows the analysis of a more complex relationship and models (Arbuckle 2010). The basic approach to SEM analysis is by utilizing the covariance matrix of observed variables as the analysis input. Sometime the correlation matrices and covariance means are used.
A basic relationship in the form of a monotonic failure criterion was proposed based on a relationship between equivalent plastic fracture strain and hydrostatic stress. An experimental program incorporating uniaxial tensile testing of notched specimens was conducted to examine the proposed relationship for the hydrostatic tensile stress range. Finite element analyses were produced to confirm the mechanical properties and obtain the stress-strain state present at specimen failure. A good relation was established between the load-displacement results obtained from experiment and finite element analysis, providing confirmation of the stress-strain data. The stress-strain results confirmed the existence of a relationship between hydrostatic stress and ductility in the form of a monotonically
The Slab Method (SM) is also known as stress local analysis method. The slab method can be used for approximate soluion when the stresses are not necessarily principal stresses. Effects such as homogeneity of deformation, temperature and strain rate effects are not taken into account. 1.1.3 Slip Line Method „This approach is used to model plastic deformation in plane strain only for a solid that can be represented as a rigid - plastic body. Elasticity is not included and the loading has to be quasi-static.“ Finite element modelling has took over this approach in terms of application.
This evolution continues to date. Aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy for application in the nanotechnology field (Richard.D Patrick, 2012: 89). This improved spatial resolution means that a greater number of lattice planes are resolvable for any material. For randomly orientated nanoparticles this has the benefit that lattice information is resolved for a greater fraction of the
In the tensile test, the goal is to observe and record the tensile strength of each individual material. The equipment used was a tensile testing machine which includes an upper and lower grip. The grips are used to hold the specimen in position. The machine includes an extensometer which measures the change in length of the
Having identified the clear factors, the next step is to confirm the factor structure. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to perform a confirmatory factor analysis on the proposed model. As can be seen, the model consists of a seven structure. Specifically the structure consists of variables (Economic value, Development Value, Psychological Value, Social Value and Functional Value, Employer brand perceived by employees, Employer brand experienced by employees, Behavior at work, Employee satisfaction, Employee Commitment and Intention to stay), There are a number of tests to ascertain whether an SEM model fits the observed data. The chi-square (χ2 ) test provides a statistical test of the null hypothesis that the model fits the data,