The reflex causes the ipsilateral pupil to dilate (Campbell & DeJong, 2005). The ciliospinal reflex is a test of ocular sympathetic function (Turner, 2012). The ciliospinal reflex depends primarily on the integrity of the sensory nerve fibers from the area of the skin being stimulated, the upper thoracic sympathetic motor neurons, and the ascending cervical sympathetic chain (Rand Swenson, 2008). The sympathetic fibers that supply the dilator pupillae muscles are believed to originate in the posterolateral hypothalamus. The sympathetic fibers project and synapse in the sympathetic cell column from vertebrae C8 to T2.
The first row, holding the diaphragm stretched upwards and putting a clamp at his base, more laterally; the second row, after reversal of diaphragmatic flap on itself, is more medially, in the cardio phrenic angle. This double row of interrupted sutures, that constitutes a “waistcoat”suture, is performed for strengthening the diaphragmatic plication. With a very small thoracotomy approach, without a real costal divarication, we can directly control the peritoneal cavity, in order to avoid abdominal organs injuries. In addiction, the full layers interrupted sutures’ double row provides to a real diaphragmatic
placement of pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Accurate screw placement is dependent on the exposure and identification of the posterior elements including the lateral border of the pars interarticularis, the entire transverse process and the caudal and cephalad facet joints(13). The pedicle entry point is at the intersection of the vertical line that forms the extension of the facet joint in line with the bony crest coming from the superior articular facet, and the horizontal line that passes through the middle of the transverse process insertion, or 1-2mm below the joint line(14). In Patel?s retrospective cohort study, they demonstrated statistically significant higher blood loss in patients who underwent open posterior lateral or posterior lumbar interbody fusion, compared to minimally invasive techniques(15). The open technique of placing pedicle screws therefore requires much dissection to expose the posterior vertebral elements and is associated with more blood loss and complications when compared to minimally invasive procedures.
In case the anus is present and in the correct position then the passage of a soft catheter greater than 2 cm into the rectum and the presence of meconium passage rules out atresia. The normal size of the anus is described as 1.3 + (3 × birth weight in kg) in millimeters. Check for the buttock groove: The parasagittal muscle fibers are located on both sides at the midline in normal anal position. These fibers give rise for the midline buttock groove. The higher the fistula in the urethra then fewer the parasagittal fibers are found and so the perineum appears more flat.
The anal canal and surrounding soft tissue were assessed for the morphology of the IAS, EAS and Puborectalis muscle. Endoanal Ultrasound (EAUS) describes the ASC as being divided in to 3 levels: upper, middle and lower . Therefore, we measured the thicknesses of IAS at mid sphincter level at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o’ clock positions and the thicknesses of EAS at middle and lower sphincter levels at the same positions. The thickness of Puborectalis muscle at 6, 9 and 12 o’ clock positions was also measured (upper sphincter
The wire was inserted into the first molar buccal tube with a coil at the other end of the wire to locate accurately the vertical (6-8 mm from the crest of interdental papilla apically) and anterioposterior position (centre of inter radiculer bone) of the mini-screw implant. c- Peri-apical radiographs were made before mini-screw implant installation, in order to measure the amount of inter radiculer bone available for implantation and to verify the mini-screw implant site without damaging the teeth or maxillary sinus. d- The patient is asked to rinse thoroughly (2 min.) with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse. e- Topical anesthetic gel was applied to the mucosa at the insertion site in order to reduce patient discomfort.
The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that envelop the shoulder joint to connect the humerus to the scapula and allow movement of the joint. (5) The four muscles are: the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the teres minor, and the subscapularis. (1) The supraspinatus is located above the scapular spine on the posterior of the scapula and attaches to the supraspinous fossa on the scapula (10). The infraspinatus is below the scapular spine and attaches to the infraspinous fossa on the scapula (11). The teres minor is found on the lateral border of the scapula (9).
Positive Spurling and Foramina Compression tests are demonstrated. There is tightness and spasm at the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and strap muscles, bilaterally. On examination of the lumbar spine, palpation reveals hypertonic muscle spasm in the paraspinal musculature noted bilaterally. Palpation reveals tenderness of the left and right sacral iliac joint with active trigger points on the left and right gluteus muscles. Straight leg raise is positive bilaterally at 65 degrees with L4-5 and LS-S1 dermatome distribution.
Once a clean plane of ' tear ( pterygium-rehxis) ' is initiated at one edge of the head, the process is led around the pterygium-head by gently rotating the tearing-edge to lift the whole of pterygium off the cornea. We include into the torn pterygium a little of the clear corneal epithelium lying beyond the pterygium cap. It is important during the process to get the correct plane of cleavage, and maintain a good grip along the whole width of the pterygium. (Figures 1 a-d). Any remnant / a tag of tissue left over the cornea is scraped off using No 15 Bard Parker knife or simply pulled off with McPherson forceps.
It consists of bundles of nerve fibers that join the lower parts of the brainstem and the spinal cord with the higher parts of the brain. The midbrain is the center for auditory and visual reflexes and plays a role in controlling wakefulness of the brain. The pons means ‘bridge’ in Latin, therefore it connects the midbrain to the medulla and cerebrum. It plays as an important role in controlling the rate and length of respiration. The medulla oblongata is an extension of the spinal cord as it lies just inside the cranial cavity above the large hole in the occipital bone called the foramen magnum.
The SPSS output has four columns that consist of the independent variable NIofH Hypertension Category and two rows that consist of the dependent variable engagement in weekly moderate activity (Salkind, 2013). A Chi-Square test for independence contains two variables that are categorical, the independent variable in the column and the dependent variable in the row, within the cells are frequency of responses (Salkind, 2013). The goal of a Chi-Square for independence is to test if there is a relationship or association between two categorical variables (Salkind,
If there was a non constant velocity, the derivative of the position time graph would yield the velocity for the specific time. From the velocity time graph, the total distance could be covered by using integrals. For example, to find the displacement from 1 second to three seconds, the equation 13v(t)dt would give the answer of -.684
of CE(s) Eigenvalue Statistic Critical Value Prob. ** None * 0.650 32.562 27.584 0.011 At most 1 0.297 10.908 21.132 0.657 At most 2 0.171 5.824 14.265 0.636 At most 3 0.094 3.064 3.841 0.080 Max-eigenvalue test indicates 1 cointegrating eqn(s) at the 0.05 level * denotes rejection of the hypothesis at the 0.05 level **MacKinnon-Haug-Michelis (1999) p-values Both Trace test and Max-eigenvalue test results shown above indicate that there exists 1 cointegrating eqn(s) at the 0.05 level. The test performed for variables for Model II (including the sectoral expenditure) assumed the some of the series to have trend while some are stochastic in the series with ‘Intercept and trend in CE – no trend in VAR’ trend specification selected, and one lag used in differences (two lags in
scapula and clavicle abduction Glenohumaral joint Internal rotation Flexion Extension Adduction Ulna, radius , humerus elbow – flexion, extension And elbow joint forearm - supination, pronation Phalanges adduction Carpals wrist hyperextension Pelvic girdle (hip joint) hip flexion Hyper extension Abduction Femure ( knee joint ) flexion Tibia, fibula (ankle joint ) ankle dorsiflexion Tarsals , calcaneus, cuboid extension Navicular, cuniform, Metatarsals, phalanges MUSCULAR ANALYSIS Neck hyper extension semispinalis capitis Splenus capitis Rectus capitis Posterior major Lattisimus