Sociological theories of crime contend that no unlawful act is intrinsically criminal. These theories stress that social unification, cultural conflict, and social disparity are potential causes of crime (Engelen, Lander, & Essen, 2016). For several decades, sociological criminology has mainly concentrated on inner-city violence and the most illustrious explanations which assert that “within certain isolated and disadvantaged cities, subcultures, or distinct ways of thinking and behaving, arise in response to environmental conditions” (Rocque, Posick, & Felix, p. 95, 2015). Sociological theories essentially maintain that crime is a symptom of poverty, rather than the source of it. For instance, if youth grow up in impoverished families, they may be more likely to commit crime as they may be exposed to more crime and stress than individuals with a higher socio-economic status.
Historical and intellectual background of theory While there are many criminological theories, a theory most interesting would be general strain theory. General strain theory has been revised by multiple different theorists. Robert Agnew’s version of general strain theory discusses strain specifically in individuals. Strain in individuals leads to negative relationships amongst the youth and adolescent teens. Robert Agnew’s general strain theory was introduced back in 1992, as a way to define social relationships and delinquent state of mind (Agnew, 1992).
Introduction Traditionally criminological theory and criminal justice practices have been focused on the criminal in an effort to reduce crime. The United States had over nine million crimes reported to law enforcement in 2016 (FBI, 2017). Such a large number of crimes lend to the notion that there must be many similarities in offenders and comparable incidents suitable for analysis that fall within accepted criminological theories to provide predictable concepts that could be utilized to reduce crime. This simply is not true. Crime and its causes are complex due to a number of various factors that may motivate offenders and furnish suitable opportunities.
In social disorganisation theory, there is an attempt to locate the gang as ‘external’ or the ‘other’ which is undesirable and must be eliminated. Sanchez-Jankowski recognizes the gap in such an understanding because he saw the gang as a subjective system which gave residents an understanding of their neighbourhood’s social world, a sense of pride in belonging to their speciﬁc social fragment, a greater sense of solidarity within their group, a
Strain Theory Delia Sanchez Professor Downey December 1, 2016 Abstract In this paper, the many reasons on how strain theory best attests juvenile punishment will be explained. Juveniles often go through many traumatizing events in their lives, and one reason on how to cope with that is, crime. Minors depend on crime for a number of things, such as seeking out a family, a way to rebel against their parents, and looking for a way to quickly “gather” money. Throughout the paper, the many details on how, and why this happens, will are further explained. Strain Theory Juvenile delinquency is the behavior that violates criminal law by a youth individual who has not yet reached the age of specified age.
Empirical background After Robert Agnew introduced the General Strain theory in 1992, he received several support from researchers regarding of his theory including himself. Broidy and Agnew (1997) conducted a study on why the crime rate is higher among males and why also females engage in crime. Broidy and Agnew (1997) hypothesized that males are always subject to different types of strain that would result to serious crime and also males are always subject to financial strain and interpersonal conflict that would lead into violence. Broidy and Agnew (1997) found that females commit crime when they are restricted of conversation, physical and emotional expression, social life and others. Years later, Agnew (2001) examined the characteristics of strainful events and conditions that influence their relationship to crime and he found out that strains are most likely to result in crime when they are seen as “unjust, high in magnitude, associated with low social control, and create some pressure or incentive to engage in criminal coping.” Agnew et.al (2002) used data from the National Survey of Children to examine on which certain major personality traits condition to affect strain.
It has been observed that there are numerous researches conducted on youth crime particularly in the United Kingdom which gave the emphasis on young individuals as offenders instead of victims of crime. Moreover, radical criminology significantly contributed to understand the youth crime through different theories. According to Yar (2012), radical criminology is known as the conflict philosophy. It centres its perceptions on crime and on regulation in the faith that capitalist civilisations precipitate as well as describe crime as the possessors by sense of production utilise their influence to endorse commandments that would regulate the working class and suppress intimidations to the supremacy of the governing class. Radical criminology draws together the studies of interactionism, labelling, Marxism, critical criminology and gender which provide the understanding of youth crime from different perspective as discussed in the paper.
The concept is built on the assertion that current criminal justice uses violence to fight violence which in return perpetrates more violence. Peacemaking criminology theorizes that through compassion and therapy services can personal suffering end. By eliminating the negative characteristics that can develop in a capitalistic society, peacemaking criminology believes it’s the only way to truly have a crime free environment. Through education, services, divine intervention and placing yourself in the shoes of those suffer is the only way to understand how to reverse violence, in other words eliminating the desire for revenge (Schmalleger, 2016, p.
Strain Theory could guide and present a strong influence on a youth’s lifestyle and be used as the theory explaining on why the juveniles have deviated towards delinquency instead of a lawful direction of adulthood. The following essay will be introducing a belief on why Strain Theory is one of the foremost concepts leading to misbehavior in adolescents. The Strain Theory could be explained as a person who has finally reached their boiling point, and it was time for them to release some pressure. Nevertheless, some resort to keep the pressure internal, allowing for it to brew a little longer. “Crime may be used to reduce or escape from the strain, seek revenge against the source of strain or related targets, or alleviate negative emotions”
According to Siegel, L.J. (2008) the rational choice theory views crime as the function of a decision-making process in which the potential costs benefits of an illegal act. This theory suggests that there are specific features that influences certain type of criminal behavior is due to the degree of the criminal prevention. If individuals did not fear the consequence of the crime, the people would be motivated to break the law, Siegel, L.J. (2008).