Kenneth Frampton entered the population scene of regional power like Personality with the seal of approval. However, towards the regional critical, the title seems to be witnessing a different approach. Frampton also sought to "structure the resistance", so that he followed up with the previous regional resistance. The article criticized the "doctrinal principles" of modernity and interaction with the postmodern popular movement during the 1980s; it is rooted and / or influenced by ideas of pluralism, phenomena, new concepts of "place" and postcolonial liberation. He also explained the ideas of environmental engineering or sustainable architecture at a time when this speech was not popular so far.
Powell and Colyvas (2008) refer to this reciprocal influence in two distinct ways of analysis: ‘built up’ processes and ‘pulled down’ processes. Built up processes, also referred to as ‘bottom up’ processes, uncover the influences of individual and organizational actors on higher-level institutions by means of micro-level rituals and negotiations that aggregate over time (Powell and Colyvas, 2008). Pulled down or ‘top down’ processes on the other hand stress how institutional logics at a societal level are embedded as ‘taken-for-granted’ norms within organizations and individual beliefs. This process, where macro-level and micro-level processes influence each other is visualized in the figure below (figure 2). March and Olsen (1989) refer to this mechanism in two dichotomous distinctions.
In order to be a good manager, from the beginning, even though we may already aware about the differences between the traditions, values and norms, we may cope with hardships adapting in an intercultural context. There are many analyses about the relationship between culture and behavior of human available for business purposes and Hofstede 's cultural dimensions theory (1980) is widely applied in the practice of many aspect in nowadays human social life. The Hofstede’s (1980) theory includes four dimensions (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism and Masculinity vs Femininity) and later in 1991, the research by Michael Bond and colleagues among students in 23 countries marks the appearance of the fifth dimension: Long-Term Orientation versus Short-Term Orientation. Finally, Minkov 's World Values Survey data led Hofstede to invent the sixth dimension: Indulgence versus
Palaeoinstitutionalism showed very little interest in cumulative theory building (Shepsle, 1989; Easton, 1971; Eckstein, 1979) and development of critical theory was missing.This school basically believed that political behavior was moulded and shaped by the formal rules of institutional arrangement (Hirsch, 1997) neglecting equivalent power dynamics. It was rules-to-power relationship which believed that actors manning the institutions derived power from the rules governing the institutional setup.Since the power flow is from rules to institutions and then to actors; the politics,economics and society answered to the prevailing institutional establishment leading to institutional domination.The politics,economics and the society was dictated by institutional norms; formal norms which had the power to create and also contain power.Power was born in the institution and also died in the institution creating a situation of institutional
But even he does not specify the nature and form of the process applied to interpretation and analysis from the stand point of aesthetic structure and form of such a type of novel. The process may even be human in a broad way without being political. That is emphasizing the socio-human repercussions of the political. Even the test of 'the political' lies in its socio-human ends than its hypothetical formulations. All political programmers create their reactions in the lives of the people, who eventually fashion the course of future politics in their human way.
The Human Side of Enterprise (1960), A professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, president of Antioch College but Douglas McGregor was most famous for his Theory X and Theory Y, assumptions about motivation and human behaviour in the workplace particularly from administrative and leadership perspectives. McGregor practiced organisation/management consulting along with Richard Beckhard and played a major role in founding what we know today as organisation development. The Paper discusses McGregor's conceptualisation of Theory Y. What has been the impact of Theory Y on managerial thinking and behaviour since 1960? Is Theory Y merely an interesting idea that had a small impact or has Theory Y changed the course of how management works?
This paper addresses the vexed issue of organizational leadership with emphasized on the irrational model and the self-concept based theory. Adopting methodological triangulation, our data collection method included the questionnaire and interview. The result of analysis shows that leadership bedeviled with irrationality and self-aggrandizement is cancerous to organizational growth and development. The study therefore recommends that team work and clan culture of communication in tandem with organizational goals and values, should be the ultimate anchor point of organization leaders. Key words: leadership, irrational model, self-concept, egocentric behavior.
In their estimation references, data, variables, diagrams or hypotheses do not qualify as theory. Among their criticisms, they noted the all too frequent tendency of simply referencing an existing theory without any attempt to set out its causal logic, describing empirical regularities without proper explanation as to why they are occurring, listing concepts without justifying their causal connections, and creating diagrams without explicating the mechanisms believed to be at play. While concurring with Sutton & Staw’s (1995) basic argument, Weick (1995) urged caution over what we discount as theory. For him theory is not just a finished product. It is equally a process, a work in progress.
Moreover, it does not consider that multiple axes of social categories are intersected without any inconvenience, but rather that they intersect in various ways. It further suggests that identities are fragmented and constructed by multiple facets of social axis. Intersectionality as situated accomplishment also recognises that individuals are actively involved in producing their own lives which make them capable of overcoming their fixed identities as oppressed or oppressor. Although the theorising of intersectionality has referred and emphasised on the importance identities, it has paid little attention to the significance of space and time in the processes of subject formation (Valentine 2007, 14). Relatedly, Staunæs (2003) also opined that feminists in the wider social sciences have not given equivalent consideration to how to research empirically in how the different categories work and intersect in the lived experiences of subjects (cited in Valentine 2007, 14).
Intention is a state of a person’s willingness to perform the behavior, and it is considered as an immediate antecedent of behavior (Ajzen,1985). Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), TPB deals with the precursor of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. These components are used in an effort to understand people’s intention to include directly or indirectly in a number of activities such as enthusiasm to vote and giving (Hrubes, Ajzen & Daigle,2011). In a direct measurement of these factors, attitude indicates to an evaluative finding about the advantages and disadvantages of execution a behavior, while subjective norms denote to a person 's perception of social pressure to perform the behavior and a perceived behavioral control refers to an individual’s perceived self-assurance in the experience of performing the behavior (Fishbein &