describe reading as an interactive cognitive process in which readers interact with the text by using their prior knowledge and cultural background (Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983; Carrell, 1987). Eskey (1986) defines reading as a way of “making sense of the world” (p.6) as readers combine the new information they read in the text with their background knowledge. Another definition of reading is offered by Anderson, Hiebert, Scott and Wilkinson (1985). They define reading as a process of constructing meaning from written texts by coordinating a number of interrelated sources of information. Accordingly, as the reader reads through the text, he generates inferences when he activates information that is not explicitly stated in the text in order
Impact of Culture Culture is an important factor that affects one’s perception, it greatly influences one’s behavior and shapes their personality which can have a significant impact on one’s education and the curriculum. Stating the importance of culture must be assessed when teaching English Language Learners, ELLs. The challenges for many English Language Learners are not overcoming a language barrier but also achieving academically. Orosco and O’Connor state that “ELLs bring a wealth of cultural and linguistic knowledge into the classroom, but perhaps our schooling is a complex process that often separates students’ personal learning experiences from the classroom resulting in a challenge of acquiring the skills for reading instruction”.
In this regard, Mcough and Shaw (1995: 271 – 273) provide more detailed advice as follows: Evidence also tends to suggest that the questions a teacher asks in the classrooms can be extremely important in helping learners to develop their competence in the language. It is useful to observe if teachers put questions to learners systematically or randomly, how long they wait for a response, and the type of question asked, from that requiring a simple one-word reply to higher order Referentialquestions where learners can provide information which the teacher does not know. Similarly, in the case of feedback and correcting learners, we can observe how and when the teacher does this. Questions The Longman Dictionary of English language provides the following definition for a question: a command or interrogative expression used to elicit information or a
After reading, it allows the reader to retell the story, discuss the elements of a story, answer questions and/or compare it to another text. We get most concise understanding of what we read after reading. Why reading is important? Reading isn’t just about going from the beginning to the end of a written passage.rather we read to get the knowledge, to gain new vocabulary, to improve our understanding and also to spend leisure time. T Elements of reading Comprehension Reading comprehension has two elements
This shift has led to a reconceptualization of language, context, and learning in profound ways. Sociocultural theories (SCT) of learning conceptualize the relationship between the learner and the social world as dialectical and mediated by cultural artifacts, among which language is primary. Learners are not just passive recipients of language input and teachers are not just providers of input. Rather, the learners, the teacher, and the sociocultural context in which the discourse takes place are constitutive of what is being learned. Seen from this perspective, classroom discourse studies based on the input-output model present an impoverished and reductionist view of L2
More specifically, they argue that instruction and assessment could be enhanced by further clarifying learning objectives along a knowledge dimension. Using appropriate terminology, respond to the following prompts: • What are the deficiencies of a one-dimensional taxonomy of educational objectives, per the readings and classroom discussion? • What are the subtle and overt characteristics that differentiate the four knowledge domains? Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives was designed to classify learning objectives, in aims of facilitating the exchange of test items among professors to reduce the preparation time needed to prepare exams every semester. Additionally, the classification system created a common language about learning goals across subject matter and grade level.
Meaning and message are the special tools for instruction, and the language is the main goal of the lesson and the focus of activity. On the other hand, language is also a tool for obtaining the objective of the lesson (Solhi & Büyükyazı, 2011). Interaction occurs between teachers and their students in order to acquire insights into class-based learning. The second language classroom is a dynamic and complex series of interrelated contexts, in which interaction is regarded as being essential to teaching and learning (Walsh, 2006). According to Qian, Tian &Wang (2009), classroom communication is a problematic means.
Particularly as students develop greater fluency and expression in English, it is significant for them to acquire more productive vocabulary knowledge and to develop their own personal vocabulary learning strategies. The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by theorists and researchers in the field. Accordingly, numerous types of approaches, techniques, exercises and practice have been introduced into the field to teach vocabulary (Hatch & Brown, 1995). It is believed that communication could not be successful when individuals do not make appropriate use of correct and right words (Allen, 1983). Therefore, lexical knowledge plays an important role in learning English; L2 learners are required to learn words and use them properly so that they could be involved in effective communication.
Literature review: Motivation is defined as, “The driving force in any situation that leads to action. Motivation itself refers to a combination of the learner’s attitude”, Motivation is one of the mainly significant factors which manipulate language learners’ achievement or failure in learning the language. Motivation is something that supports someone to do something. Harmer reported in his book “English Language Teaching” that motivation is some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do some things in order to achieve something (Harmer, 1988: 51). Motivation is further separated into two types: Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation .Intrinsic motivation define as; “delight of language learning itself”, and extrinsic motivation, define as; “motivation that drive by parental pressure , societal expectations, academic requirements or the other source of rewards and punishments” Richards,(2002:P,343) The researcher Rico, L.J.A.
CoBI is related to Krashen’s “Monitor Model”. Krashen (1982) emphasized ways of decreasing learner anxiety, such as providing interesting texts as well as meaningful activities, which were comprehensible to learners, and CoBI had the following essential features: “learning a language through academic content, engaging in activities, developing proficiency in academic discourse and fostering the development of effective learning strategies” (Crandall, 1999). Content-Based Instruction is based on three main theories of language and four teaching models. Three main theories of language are: “language is text and discourse-based,” “language use draws on integrated skills,” and “language is purposeful” (Crandall, 1999). Four teaching models are