The Z product was a liquid, while the E product was a solid. The final product weight for percent yield was only the solid E product, which missed one half of the final product produce. If both products were weight, the percent yield would have been larger that it was. Instead of 22.33%, it could have been 44.66%. To prove that both products were obtained, but only one of the two products was analyze, a TLC plate of the DCM layer, that contains both products, and of the final product, was obtain.
It is electrically conductive as both a solid and a liquid, but not soluble in either water or any organic solvent. Classify the substance as best you can from these properties. Ans: Metallic. The high melting point rules out the molecular category due to the fact that molecular compounds have low melting point.  Conductivity in solid state leaves no doubt to the fact the substance is not ionic.
12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
Typically, modern chemists make use of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to determine, quantitatively, the concentration of small and often trace elements found within certain substances and/or the environment. such measurements can be made due to the sensitive nature of AAS, as measurements that are taken can be into the parts per million (ppm). In principle, AAS works, by using ground state atoms. (which are atoms that have the lowest possible shell orbit to the nucleus due to containing very little energy). (see bibliography: Smith, R. (2010).
Dalton’s law, as described before, states that the sum of the partial pressures of each component in a solution – two or more volatile compounds – is equal to the total pressure. As this now includes more than one compound when separating volatile substances from each other, fractional distillation must be used. Fractional distillation, which can be viewed as a series of simple distillations, is a method used to separate volatile impurities from its solvent. The main difference is that a column is introduced between distillation flask and head to separate the liquids from each other. This column – of a large surface area with glass or ceramic – provides ample contact between the vapor and liquid phases.
Rf is equal to the distance traveled by the substance divided by the distance traveled by the solvent. Since the solvent used in the developing chamber was hexanes—a non-polar molecule— the more nonpolar the substance was, the stronger it would stick to the plate. This means that the more polar a pigment was, the higher it climbed on the TLC plate and would therefore have a larger Rf. There are 3 major classes of pigments present in spinach: carotenes, xanthophylls, and chlorophylls. Since the solvent is nonpolar, we would expect carotene to have the lowest Rf, then xanthophylls, and chlorophylls would have the highest.
One very important difference is that Titanium has a very slow rate of corrosion that seawater can corrode it to the thickness of a thin paper in 4,00 years. However, as included in Quora, “...corrosion only happens in metals” (Rahman Asad, 2015). This means that Phosphorus has no corrosion rate as opposed to Titanium. Moreover, Titanium and Phosphorus have many differences in their solubleness and ability to rust. Titanium is soluble in concentrated acids and it is able to rust.
Experiment 8: Identification of metal ions and inorganic compounds in aqueous solution Introduction: Qualitative analysis is the identification a sample's component(s). Unlike a quantitative analysis, we are not concerned with the amount of a substance present in a sample but only with its identity. In this exercise we will focus on identifying the cations and anions that make up ionic compounds, both solid and in solution. Ideally there would be chemical tests that could be used to identify individual ions without interference by any other ions. Unfortunately, there are often complications.
Spectrometers are used to measure the properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fig 1: Dispertion of the visiable light 2. Theory Grating Spectrometer: In a spectrometer if diffract light into specific wavelengths then uses grating. In this figure (2) we can see that light passes through the Input slit. When the
Also, salt is an ionic compound and not a polar covalent compound, even though it did not melt last, due to the fact that the elements Na and Cl, both lose or gain an electron and then bond because of their opposite charges, which is a property only ionic bonds possess. The wax was the only substance whose results were synonymous with my hypothesis, since it required a low temperature for its melting point and was not soluble in water, both properties of nonpolar covalent compounds. Potential sources of error included not labeling the spots each substance was placed in the aluminum foil boat, seeing as the result for sugar seemed to be the correct conclusion for salt and vice versa. A future experiment would involve individually testing each substance in an aluminum foil boat, of the same brand, on a heat plate in order to avoid uncertainty. Each substance should be timed to record the precise time each substance began to melt or burn.