Schizophrenia Literature Review

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Literature review
Symptom types of Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is generally divided according to symptom types. The symptoms of schizophrenia have been divided into three specific complexes (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive deficits; Buchanan, 2007), while others use a dichotomous model, such as type I and type II Schizophrenia (Crow, 1980) that roughly corresponds to positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia (Andreasen, 1982). Positive symptoms were characterized over the past 150 years by active excesses in normal functioning; while negative symptoms of schizophrenia are characterized by a loss of normal functioning (Berrios, 1985; Rector, Beck & Stolar, 2005). Hence, while there are different symptom types, all typologies and dimensional models acknowledge negative symptoms.
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are thought to be a marker of dysfunction and cognitive impairments (Rabinowtiz et al., 2012). Historically, negative
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The prevalence of Negative symptoms in first-episode psychosis is high. Estimates range from 50-90% at first episode, with 20-40% persisting negative symptoms (e.g., Makinen et al., 2008). These symptoms usually include psychomotor retardation, avolition, apathy, anhedonia, attentional impairment, and decreased emotional expression when at first episode (Potkin, 2014). The prevalence of negative symptoms in chronic schizophrenia is inconclusive. It varies considerably (35–90%) possibly due to the use of different measurement instruments, research in heterogeneous populations, and measurement during different stages of illness (Lyne et al., 2012). Negative symptoms are highly prevalent amongst schizophrenia patients and therefore, may help predict poorer social outcomes, such as social stagnation (Dlabac-de Lange, Knegtering & Aleman,
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