Multiple factors can have an effect on the sense of belonging in an educational school environment, such as teacher-student relationships, relationships between classmates, staff support and caring, engagement in academic work, availability and participation in extracurricular activities and just and constructive discipline. Sense of belonging at school can be called ‘school connectedness’, as it refers to the feeling of feeling close to the people at school and feeling like a part of the school community. This includes feeling that peers and teachers treat them fairly, as well as a sense of security, safety and comfort. School is an extremely important and central part of life to young people. School is crucial to
Critical thinking is relevant in a few different aspects of life. For example, critical thinking can be applied to school and learning. There are people who support using different aspects of critical thinking in students curriculum. Laura Hummell said, "Critical thinking skill development is crucial in elementary schools. Students who are allowed to explore, empathize, question, hypothesize, conceptualize, experiment, and evaluate throughout their own learning become productive community members" (Hummell 5).
A study published by Weber & Ruch in 2011 examined the role of good character at school. Students completed the Values in Action Inventory and measures on school-related satisfaction and academic self-efficacy. Teachers’ ratings on positive classroom behavior and students’ grades were also collected. Love of learning, zest, gratitude, perseverance and curiosity were positively associated with school-related satisfaction. Whereas hope, love of learning, perseverance and prudence were positively associated with academic self-efficacy.
They are turning around their approach into a focus on creating positive school climate and responsive classroom as part of holistic quality education based on child rights where there is effective teaching and classroom management, thus enhancing students’ learning experiences. The motivational psychology researchers discovered several useful approaches and practices that can be implemented in the classroom for effective learning to take place (Miller, 2012). Teachers are using differentiation to support teaching and learning. Differentiation can vary in pace, activities, resources, teaching and learning styles in an attempt to best meet the needs of individual student. Various teaching strategies such as cooperative learning, active learning, role play and games and pedagogic tools are being integrated in educational theories in meaningful and useful ways to encourage task or learning achievements.
Cognitive perspectives imply that mutual interaction between students with “the mental processing of the information rather than with motivations” (Slavin, 1996 : 48) will improve students’ academic achievement. The two perspectives, namely, cognitive development and elaboration are discussed in the following paragraphs to examine comprehensively their effects on student learning. The two cognitive perspectives explained in the following paragraphs focus on the interactions among groups of students, holding that these interactions themselves lead to better learning and thus better achievement. 3. Cognitive Developmental Perspective : A fundamental assumption of the cognitive development perspective driven by theories is that reciprocal interaction among children around suitable academic tasks creates growth in the knowledge of concepts and critical skills (Slavin, 2011).
School age intervention is one of the programs practiced in school settings. This program will train students to understand more ones emotion, and to develop interaction with peers effectively. This social competence intervention will decrease violent behavior, improved self-control and increase the quality of social interaction (A. Kennedy, 2012). Socially competent behavior and its relation to the success of the students in school setting has already information and evidences (Gresham, Sugai, & Horner, 2001 as cited by A. Kennedy, 2010). Evidence suggests that the student who possesses a socially competent behavior observed to be active in school participation especially in classroom activities which leads them to interact positively with peers.
Through the involvement of school community members in these key decisions, SBM can create more effective learning environments for students. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES? According to the American Association of School Administrators (AASA), the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), and
The study done by Ross and Gray (2006) revealed that collective teacher efficacy contributed to commitment to school mission, commitment to community partnership, and especially to commitment to professional community. Furthermore, the study found that collective teacher efficacy strongly predicted commitment to community partnerships (Ross & Gray, 2006). However, this study further suggests that the teacher’s belief on their group competency can also influence their teaching effectiveness. Collective Teacher Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness Goddard, Hoy, and Hoy (2000) suggest that one way for school administrators to improve student achievement is by working to raise the collective efficacy beliefs of their faculties. Past teaching experiences has an impact on the development of a teacher’s sense of efficacy.
Protective factors at school can be things such as having a teacher who shows a lot of care and compassion for a child success. It can also be things like helping the child build a high- expectations and sense of achievement for themselves, and helping children see where their skills are. Also a good way for teachers and school systems to incorporate protective factors for an individual would be to give them opportunities to strive, and get more involved in the educational system (Benard, n.d., p. 2-3). Lastly, these external protective factors
For example, this sort of curriculum change is known as the whole-class, small group method, such as peer-matching, small grouping, and supportive groups, is utilized as a way to achieve academic and behavioral objectives. Students recognized these alternative groups as positive model that enhances results for students (Elbaum, Vaughn, Hughes, and Moody,