The public school to prison pipeline was examined in the literature review through zero-tolerance policies and the effects it has played on graduation rates. Zero-tolerance policies have dramatically increased students being recommended to the court system according to the literature review. The literature review has shown a need for school districts to examine zero-tolerance policies and the negative effects that it has caused on students. Fran Silverman (2005) discusses students being punished under zero-tolerance and says, “The students were disciplined under their school’s zero tolerance policy and some advocates are saying these codes of conduct have become so strict that schools are turning into criminal justice systems, or worse, jailhouses” (pg. 54). Therefore zero-tolerance policies have not had the outcome that politicians have hoped for and should be examined for the effects that they have had on our students. The purpose of this study will be to examine discipline suspensions and expulsions, attendance, and poverty to determine if there is a correlation between these and the graduation rates. In an article by Nirvi Shah (2011), there is discussion about the effects of zero-tolerance policies. Nirvi Shah continues by saying, “Over the past two years, an increasing number of reports and initiatives have pointed out …show more content…
The literature review clearly has shown that there is a phenomenon called School to Prison, Schoolhouse to Jailhouse, or Public Education to Prison Pipeline. Therefore, Jeremy Thompson (2016) says, “Zero-tolerance policies in schools result in high suspension rates and expulsion rates among students in general, but disproportionately affect minority students, especially African-Americans because students who have been suspended or expelled are more likely than not to end up in the Criminal Justice
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While incarcerated, Lerner went through some personal, more emotional changes in response to being imprisoned with the male inmates. From the time of Jimmy's arrival to the county jail until the time he was in the prison yard, a lot of personal development occurred. Being liable to defend one's self, Jimmy had dangerous encounters with dangerous inmates such as Hunger, a great in size alpha male who targeted Jimmy forced him to become more ruthless. Although Lerner had help from his buddies, Hunger transformed the mindset of Jimmy. When Jimmy and Kansas were first assigned cellmates Kansas gave him a few pointers in order to survive the prison lifestyle.
Even minor offenses, and more surprisingly, mere association with various illegal drugs guaranteed years behind bars. Furthermore, “due” to the uprisings for racial and civil equality, school district officials across the nation embraced more severe penalties and employed law enforcement to
To support my argument, some of the experiences and abuse nature the boys at this school had to go through regardless of what they might have done is unacceptable. No child should be treated with such consequences for things like stealing a car, or getting into fights. To expand off of my argument, an example of someone being treated with severe abuse as a consequence is when Elwood had tried to stop Black Mike from bullying Corey. With Elwood trying to stop the situation, Black Mike punched Elwood when they got caught by Phil, one of the white housemen. Because of this scuffle Elwood had gotten into, he received his first sense of consequence in the white house at the Nickel Academy.
Essay Week 5 The Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative isn’t about letting juvenile offenders off the hook with just a slap on the wrist, it is about a more proactive approach that involves the community as whole. JDAI is about reducing the number of juveniles that are being detained and using that information to help make the right decisions for our youth that are considered at risk. The goals of JDAI are to reduce the number of juveniles that are in detention facilities, and to help reform the juvenile justice system. JDAI jurisdictions have achieved a cumulative reduction of 43 percent in average daily population (Casey, 2015)
Although, discriminatory discipline overtly plays a significant role in pushing youth particularly students of color out of the classrooms and into the pipeline, this shines a light on the fact that our public school system is failing our children regardless of race. While a faulty public school system can not foster students educational development nor prepare students to be responsible citizens who lead economically and socially productive lives. Therefore, stopping the bleeding of school-to-prison pipeline is merely a prelude to a much larger social justice challenge—the right to quality education that constructs the well-being for all.
McCarter describes thoroughly the consequences STPP has on the nation’s school-age youth, including but not limited to increased exposure the criminal justice system, and gives solutions that schools can implement that will hopefully limit the overwhelming amount of students coming in contact with the STPP. The article proves that zero tolerance policies are not conducive to a safe school environment and does not foster a safe learning climate for
The United States has a larger percent of its population incarcerated than any other country. America is responsible for a quarter of the world’s inmates, and its incarceration rate is growing exponentially. The expense generated by these overcrowded prisons cost the country a substantial amount of money every year. While people are incarcerated for several reasons, the country’s prisons are focused on punishment rather than reform, and the result is a misguided system that fails to rehabilitate criminals or discourage crime. This literature review will discuss the ineffectiveness of the United States’ criminal justice system and how mass incarceration of non-violent offenders, racial profiling, and a high rate of recidivism has become a problem.
The United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights shows that there has been a constant overrepresentation of minority children in what is known as special education courses. The majority of this overrepresentation occurs for African American children. Unfortunately this has been occurring for years, during the 1980’s African American students only made up sixteen percent of the total school population make up, however they represented thirty-eight percent of children that were in classes for students that were in need of special education courses. Forty years later this is still occurring, there is still an overrepresentation of African American children in special education courses, which leads to an overrepresentation of African
They are so prevalent in this prison population that on any day, a male with no degree is more likely in jail than working. Many legal scholars refer to this high incarceration rate among African Americans as a new form of Jim Crow segregation, in which minorities head from high school straight to
Remove or Revise Zero-tolerance policies are policies that have been adapted in work places, communities, and, most frequently, schools. Depending on how certain schools are run and who they are run by, zero-tolerance policies could be positive and helpful or negative and harmful. Many people wonder are these policies really effective in reducing crime and creating safer environments in schools like lawmakers claim these policies are doing ; most of the opponents to zero-tolerance policies believe that the policies are just cruel punishments that add to the problems that already exist in our schools and communities. There are obviously those who feel that the policies do exactly what they say they do; advocates for zero-tolerance policies
It wasn 't just students and their parents - civil rights groups got involved, as did educators, and even juvenile judges sounded alarm at the number of young people who came out of zero tolerance with arrest records and other disciplinary millstones around their necks. The Obama Justice Department has also pressed school districts to find alternatives to arrest and expulsion. In recent years, Florida has indeed changed its approach - a 2009 amendment puts more discretion in the hands of school administrators to discipline students. A number of counties have also set up alternative sanctions for infractions - counseling, community service and other rehabilitative programs aim to help students improve their behavior, unlike expulsion, which left students to wander the streets during the day, fall behind on school work and get into even more trouble.
Nancy A. Heitzeg, a Sociology Professor at St. Catherine University published an article titled Education or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies And The School to Prison Pipeline. In this scholar article Heitzeg, addresses the zero tolerance policy and the negative effects of this policy. She looks at the growing number of suspensions, expulsions, and dropout rates. Most importantly how this policy is racially disproportionate; for more Black and Latino students are likely to face harsher consequences for this zero tolerance policy. She argues for reform and alternatives that will lead our youth away from the criminal justice system and back toward the education
Children' brain are not fully developed yet. Thus, they do not realize the risks and consequences of their action. School-to-prison pipeline is arresting children for violating school rules. Statistic show drop out students are likely in jail for many reasons. Society need to focus more on education and spend less on prison, which can save thousands of taxpayers’ money.
Everyday Braxton goes to school and does the correct things needed to be known as a good kid. One day a fight happens in front of Braxton and tries to break the fight up, instead of breaking the fight up, Braxton ends up being fought also. He is told that he is punished instead of helped. In the short run everyone thinks he will learn from his mistakes, in the long run, this is ran through all of the colleges and nobody accepts him, Braxton drops out. When it comes to student misbehavior, most schools have long practiced a basic system of crime and punishment, isolating the perceived “offender” through detention or suspension.
I have never before visited a prison nor have I met a prisoner in my entire life. Why should I care about someone whom I would rarely see? But these inmates are our brothers and sisters who may have made bad choices, but don’t want their mistakes to hold them back. Throughout my life, my once miserable and hopeless circumstances were transformed by education, and I am certain that the same principle can be applied to anyone, including inmates, despite our differences in how we responded to circumstances. It is true that prison takes nearly everything away from them – even their hopes and dreams.