Science And Consilience In Science

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The last two centuries -with the rise of modern sciences- witnessed an increase of knowledge specialization and fragmentation. Since then a sharp dividing line was drawn between two important branches of knowledge; natural sciences and social sciences/humanities. Scientists argue that the boundary is not a fine line but a broad unexplored area of linking phenomena (Wilson, 1998a). Such stream of thinking brought attention to concepts like consilience and universology. The word Consilience was first used by William Whewell to explain “the linking of facts across disciplines to create a common ground of explanation...it is a test of the truth of the theory” (Whewell, 1840). If there is a contradiction between a theory and another one in a related discipline then either one of them is wrong or there is a gap between the two disciplines that needs further investigation. Edward Wilson argues that we should focus on those knowledge gaps between different disciplines. The concept of consilience explains why it is important to study different related disciplines, and how they help providing a better understanding of the required field of study. Consilience aims to unify all fields of knowledge and scientific inquiry to serve the betterment of mankind. According to Wilson, we can better manage some of the current crises facing humanity - Changing the world 's climate, resources pollution, demolition of forests and ecosystems…etc.-through the integration between knowledge derived from

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