The attachment of E.coli on the surfaces of epithelial cells pertaining to urinary tract is achieved throughout several bacterial adhesive proteins. In parallel with biofilm formation of pathogenic E.coli on animate and inanimate surfaces, the secretion of exopolysaccharide occurs. The most important VFs which are found in UPEC strains are recognized as capsule, fimbriae, pili, flagella, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hemolysins, siderophores and toxins. These factors mediate colonization and invasion of the UPEC in diverse positions (9, 12,
According to the Biochemical test results the identification of different types of bacterial colonies present in Ganga water was done with the help of colour change, gas production, acid production & bubble development. Two methods like Double Agar method & Plaque Assay method were used for the isolation of bacteriophage.
The bacterium can use several organic compounds as food sources, which gives it an exceptional ability to colonise ecological niches where nutrients are limited. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes rhamnolipids when grown under the appropriate conditions . Rhamnolipids being a group of biosurfactants of glycolipid nature, is composed of a hydrophilic head formed by one or two rhamnose molecules, known respectively as mono-rhamnolipid (monoRL) and di-rhamnolipid (diRL), and a hydrophobic tail which contains one or two fatty acids. The type and proportion of the rhamnolipids produced depends on the bacterial strain, the carbon source used and the culture conditions . It is known that P. aeruginosa strains are able to produce six types of rhamnolipids from substrates including C11 and C12 alkanes, succinate, pyruvate, citrate, fructose, olive oil, glucose and mannitol , which possess similar chemical structure and surface activity .
Biochemical analysis of biosurfactant producing microorganisms The biosurfactant producing microorganisms then characterized by different types of test includes Motility Test, Gram Staining, Indole Test, Methyl Red Test, Citrate Test, Spore Staining, Catalase Test, Voges-Proskauer Test, Casein Hydrolysis, Starch Hydrolysis, Lipid Hydrolysis, Gelatin Liquifaction Test, Gelatin Hydrolysis, Oxidase Test. Results after these test, we will able to find the closest match of our sample with known bacterial genus and assign the bacterial signature according to Bergey’s manual. Biosurfactant
Mycoplasmas usually adhere to cells but, depending on the species, may fuse with the host cell or even invade it (Balish et al., 2002; Dimitrov, 1993 and Lo et al., 1993). These bacteria deplete the nutrients of cell cultures and interfere with the response of these cells when challenged experimentally(Miyazaki, et al., 1990). Interruption of cell metabolism (Pollack et al., 1997), modulation of the immune response (Chambaud et al., 1999 and D’Orazio et al., 1996), modification of cellular morphology, interference with viral replication, chromosome modifications, or cell transformation may occur (Razin et al., 1998). The identification of these phenomena in accidental or experimental infections may contribute to the understanding of the relationship between mycoplasmas and the host cell (Rottem,
Discovery and description of Aeromonas species: From the discovery of genus Aeromonas in 1943 till mid - 1970s, aeromonads are initially divided into two major groups; based upon growth characteristics and other biochemical features (Janda, and Duffey, 1988). This mesophilic group, typified by A. hydrophila, consisted of motile isolates that grew well at 35 °C to 37 °C and are associated with a variety of human infections (Ref ). In the second group, referred to as psychrophilic strains, caused diseases in fish that are nonmotile, and had optimal growth temperatures of 22 °C to 25°C. This group represent with isolates that currently reside within the species A. salmonicida (Ref ). Ten year following mid-1970s, several other groups were
b-Amylase is an exo-acting enzyme It hydrolyses alternate glycosidic linkages, yielding maltose. Some of the microorganisms reported to produce b-amylases include Bacillus polymyxa, B. cereus, B. megatarium, Streptomyces sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Rhizopus japonicas The fungal amylases are preferred over other microbial sources because of their more acceptable acceptable GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. PH: Earlier reports suggest that amylases are produced by fungal organisms maximally in acidic medium,Enzyme production started at pH 3.0 and cease at pH 8.0. STARCH CONCENTRATIONS:There was progressive increase in the productivity of α-amylase and glucoamylase by the isolates as the starch concentration increased.
Surfactants are the group of organic compounds which is attaining great interest of researchers due to their wide range of applications in various fields of human kind as laundry detergents, emulsifiers, corrosion inhibitors, oil recovery, drugs etc. Biodegradability and toxicity is a major issue arising from the widespread use of conventional surfactants that led researchers to design eco-friendly, less toxic and biodegradable Biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are the surface active agents synthesized from microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and yeast or excreted extracellularly. Amino acid surfactants formed another class of green and sustainable surfactants which is generally originated from animal or agricultural base. Amino acid based surfactants are gaining great interest of
In related pathogens, such as Neisseria gonorrhoea, it has also been found that fHbp is recruited, but it uses instead of the fHbp a porin (PorA) protein on the surface of the bacteria (Schneider et al. 2006; Haralambous et al. 2006). When bound to fHbp, fH preserves its function as a cofactor for fI (Schneider et al. 2006).
In view of this, the isolate was further evaluated for its ability to produce various enzymes like protease, amylase, cellulase and lipase. Isolated Bacillus flexus strain produced cellulose, amylase and protease. The results concluded that the hydrolytic enzymes produced by the Bacillus flexus isolate enabled it towards transforming these complex substrates to simple absorbable metabolites, and making them available for PHA production. Several reports are available in the literature on PHA production by various Bacillus sp. using agro-industrial wastes and surplus materials.