It is often used in the selective identification of enteric bacteria including Salmonella and Shigella. The TSI agar has glucose, lactose and sucrose as the sources of carbohydrates. Phenol red is the acid base indicator incorporated in the medium. The TSI medium indicates whether the bacteria ferments glucose only, or lactose and sucrose with or without production of gas. Nitrate serves as a source of nitrogen for many bacteria.
Virulence factors are part of an important concept in bacterial pathogenicity (Henderson, Poole & Wilson, 1996). According to Cross (2008), Dubey and Maheshwari (2013), virulence factors enable the bacteria to produce a variety of molecules in order to adhere, invade and evade host defences and cause tissue damage. these molecules have been grouped into adhesins, invasins, impedins, aggressins and modulins (Dubey & Maheshwari, 2013: Henderson, Poole & Wilson, 1996). Adhesins Adhesins are bacterial proteins that responsible for adhesion to host cells which allow the bacterium to bind to a variety of cells, mainly epithelia, as the first step to entering the host (Dubey & Maheshwari, 2013: Henderson, Poole & Wilson, 1996). Bacteria must adhere
coli were seen. The bacterial cells’ ability to survive the ampicillin in the medium was a result of their transformation. As mentioned previously, the pGLO plasmid contained the beta-lactamase enzyme which is needed for antibiotic resistance. Since the E. coli on this plate underwent the transformation, they were able to uptake the beta-lactamase enzyme thereby making the bacterial cells ampicillin resistant. As well as being able to successfully grow and reproduce, the E. coli in the LB/amp/ara +pGLO plate also emitted a fluorescent glow when exposed to UV light.
Microorganisms are considered as miniatures of chemical factories. Until Pasteur showed that fermentation is initiated by living organisms and showed that lactic acid fermentation is caused by living organisms that people seriously began to investigate microbes as a source for bioactive natural products. Then, scientific serendipity and the power of observation provided the impetus to Fleming to usher in the antibiotic era via the discovery of penicillin from the fungus Penicillium notatum. After which, array of bioactive metabolites was isolated from microorganisms including fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. Fleming in 1929 discovered the serendipitous penicillin from the filamentous fungus, Penicillium notatum, and he discovered the broad therapeutic use of this agent in the 1940s (Demain and Fang, 2000).
Jonas and Farah (1997) stated that the gram negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum is the most studied for its capacity to synthesis cellulose among other bacteria that can synthesis bacterial cellulose. Keshk (1999) reported that different substrates used can produce different yield of bacterial
Acquisitions of these signals by the transferred genes enabled their expression in the host cytosol and sometimes resulted in the replacement of a host gene by a bacterial homolog, a process known as endosymbiotic gene replacement. In a next evolutionary stage, transferred genes acquired sequences encoding targeting signals (e.g., via exon shuffling) that allowed their protein products to be imported into the mitochondrion or the primary plastid. Most proteins targeted to mitochondria and primary plastids carry N-terminal transit peptides that are later removed in the organelle matrix. Mitochondria and primary plastids are surrounded by two membranes. Consequently, their import machineries are composed of two translocons: one for the outer membrane and the other for the inner
They appeared to be a group of bacteria that existed in the biofilm milieu, less cognitively associated with other individual bacterial species. The orange cluster consisted of Fusobacterium species, Prevotellaspecies, Micromonasmicros, Peptostreptococcus micros, Campylobacter species, Eubacteriumspecies and Streptococcus constellatus. These species have been considered bridging species related to both, their physiological capabilities to use and release nutrient substances in the biofilms, and the recognition that they express cell surface structures and can bind to the early colonizers and to members of the red complex.
The gastrointestinal tract is a home for complex community of commensal bacterial species. This gut microbial community also known as microbiota has co-evolved with its host over millennia and provides benefits to its host in many ways such as digestion, detoxification, production of nutrients, protection against pathogens and regulation of immune system. Immune system plays important role in maintaining the body healthy health by elimination of pathogens. CD4+ T cells in particular, play key role in the adaptive immune system and located in the lamina propria (LP) of the intestine. Microbiota plays important role in the development of CD4+ T cells.
The bacteria were heat-killed, and these respective components were extracted and the composition resulted in being similar to that of DNA. They also treated the bacteria with multiple enzymes, such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, ribonuclease and deoxyribonucleodepolymerase, where it was found that only the deoxyribonucleodepolymerase inhibited the formation of smooth Pneumococcus colonies. [Downie. A. W. (1972)] Thus, they confirmed that DNA was the transformation principle in Griffith's experiments. The Avery and MacLeod experiment was replicated in the laboratories at the University of the Witwatersrand.
GAIRANOD, Princess Jeanne R. BS Biology, 2011 – 37638 Synthesis Paper: Shigella flexneri The genus Shigella includes four different species – Shigella boydii, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella flexneri. Several serotypes occur for each species based on O - antigen variations (Jennison & Verma, 2004; Morona, et al., 1995). Members of the genus are gram-negative, highly infective facultative intracellular pathogens, recognized as etiological agents of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) (Kotloff, et al., 1999; Sansonetti, 2001). Shigella ranks third among the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States, following Salmonella, and Campylobacter, respectively (Gupta, et al., 2004). Taxonomy Shigella flexneri
Discussion Post Week ten NURS 6501, N-21 Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually caused by bacteria and are common. Symptoms of both upper and lower infections are similar; therefore, it is important for advanced practice nurses (APNs) to be able to determine the pathophysiology of upper and lower UTIs. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the similarities and differences between upper and lower UTIs, clinical manifestations, treatments, and factors affecting all of these things. UTIs are infections that may occur anywhere in the urinary tract such as the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys. Typically UTIs are caused by bacteria from the gut flora and are inflammation of the urinary epithelium.
My hypothesis for this research project is that the longer the sugary material stays on teeth, the greater the growth of bacteria is in the mouth. To test my hypothesis, I designed and ran an experiment using sucrose to test for the bacterial growth in the mouth. To do this experiment blood agar plates, sterile forceps, mouth wash, candy, and swab sticks were used in this experiment. I used blood agar plates because “blood agar is an enriched medium that supports the growth of fastidious microbes, because many pathogen including S.Mutan have special dietary needs. Blood agar contains extra nutrients such as whole blood, blood serum, certain vitamins, sugar and amino acid as mentioned in Medical microbiology lab manual written by our own faculty member
Tn 4351 was originally isolated from bacteroides fragilis  . The transposon was successfully introduced into Cytophaga succinicans, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Flexibacter canadiansis, Flexibacter strain SFI and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides by conjugation . Tn 4351carries two antibiotic resistance gene. One of the codes for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin which is expressed in bactroides but not in E.Coli. The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides.
Introduction: Transforming a gene or genetic information from one organism into another with the hopes that if done successfully the organism with the new DNA will be given new traits is a method known as genetic transformation (Rafter). Genetic transformation is used quite frequently in today’s world, form medicine to agriculture. In this lab we will be inserting a gene into an Escherichia coli bacteria with the help of a plasmid. Escherichia coli bacteria also known as E. coli, is a bacterium that is rod shaped and contains flagella to help it move. The bacterial DNA is circular inside of an E. coli bacterium.